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Table 3 Papers of knowledge user engagement in knowledge synthesis from LMICs

From: Engaging policy-makers, health system managers, and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process: a scoping review

Author, year; country Country income status, Context Type of knowledge users involved Type of engagement Challenges to engagement Benefits of engagement Outcomes of engagement
Agweyu 2012 [68]; Kenya Middle-income, National healthcare system • Policy-makers • Consultation with key informants
• Formal meeting/workshop with expert panel
• Limited resources and an absence of mechanisms to rapidly gain wider opinions from key sources including patients, caregivers and policy-makers
• Striking a balance between research evidence and expert opinions in the decision-making process
Not reported Not reported
Akl 2016 [41]; Lebanon Middle-income, Applied research settings • Policy-makers • Consultation with key informants
• Focus groups, interviews and formal meeting/workshop with expert panel
Not reported • A multidisciplinary team developed and validated the tool Not reported
Buchan 2011 [69]; Brazil Middle-income, National healthcare system • Policy-makers • Key informant interviews • Time and resource limitations meant that only some of the key individuals who were informants on the issue could be consulted • Key informants provided additional reports and grey literature for review and provided contextual evidence Not reported
Clarke 2016 [70]; Cambodia Middle-income, National healthcare system • Healthcare professionals & organizations
• Government agencies
• Policy-makers
• Key informant interviews, focus groups and surveys Not reported Not reported Not reported
Higashi 2011 [71]; Vietnam Middle-income,
Various policy settings
• Government agencies
• Policy-makers
• Key informant interviews, focus groups and surveys
• Formal meeting/workshop with key informant
Not reported Not reported Not reported
Muller 2005 [72]; South Africa Middle-income, National healthcare system • Government agencies
• Non-government agencies
• Patients, patient organizations & caregivers
• Policy-makers
• Consultations with principal knowledge users
• Working group
Not reported Not reported Not reported
Orem 2012 [73]; Uganda Low-income, Various policy settings • Policy-makers • Key informant interviews • Finding key informants with relevant interest in a given policy concern
• Establishing unbiased opinion based on political interest
• Key informant interviews with policy-makers provided contextual considerations for knowledge synthesis and subsequent translation Not reported
Sidibe 2014 [74]; Kenya Middle-income, National healthcare system • Community members & advocates
• Funding bodies
• Health system managers
• Non-government agencies
• Policy-makers
• Formal meeting/workshop with key informants Not reported Not reported Not reported
Teerawattananon 2016 [75]; Thailand Middle-income, National healthcare system • Funding bodies
• Healthcare professionals & organizations
• Industry stakeholders
• Non-government agencies
• Patients, patient organizations & caregivers
• Policy analysts
• Policy-makers
• In-person Delphi with expert panel
• Formal meeting/workshop with key informants
• Stakeholder topic expertise can limit the scope of the discussion • Stakeholders can help prioritize research topics for assessment, help fine-tune research questions and the scope of study, and verify and validate preliminary results as well as fine-tune policy recommendations
• Once final results have been obtained and policy recommendations have been formed, a stakeholder consultation meeting can help to verify and validate recommendations
• Can be a powerful approach to systematically develop and legitimise policy-relevant HTA information
Not reported
Wiysonge 2012 [76]; South Africa Middle-income, National healthcare system • Health system managers • Key informant interviews Not reported • Key informant interviews helped define the review scope and helped ensure the report addresses relevant practice issues Not reported