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Table 4 Quality improvement outcomes

From: Quality improvement initiatives for hospitalised small and sick newborns in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Quality of care classification of QI outcome measure Quality improvement outcome Significant increase Significant decrease No significant change Significance not assessed or not reported
Safe (minimising risks and harm) Mortality 8 studies—[36, 40, 43, 49, 50, 56,57,58] 4 studies—[38, 42, 53, 56] 5 studies—[35, 39, 44, 51, 60]
Patient weight gain 1 study—[45] 2 studies—[49, 53] 1 study—[52]
Patient infection rates 1 study—[55] 7 studies—[33, 34, 41, 46, 49, 51, 57] 1 study—[43]
Effect on retinopathy of prematurity 1 study—[53]
Sepsis rates 3 studies—[36, 43, 51] 5 studies—[40, 43, 49, 53, 58]
Rates of hypothermia 1 study—[40]
Patient lower respiratory tract disease 1 study—[33] 2 studies—[40, 53]
Severe illness (various) 2 studies—[40, 58] 1 study—[49] 4 studies—[40, 43, 49, 53]
Presence of hyperbilirubinaemia 1 study—[49]
Effect on breastfeeding practice 1 study—[54] 2 studies—[52, 55]
Maternal health 1 study—[35]
Stillbirth 1 study—[35]   
Premature delivery rate 1 study—[55] 1 study—[42]
Effective (utilising evidence) Appropriate oxygen use 1 study—[44]
Antibiotic usage 1 study—[44] 2 studies—[36, 43] 1 study—[55] 2 studies—[39, 51]
Adherence to national guidelines of care 4 studies—[33, 34, 47, 59] 2 studies—[39, 51]
Mechanical ventilator days 2 studies—[33, 41]
Central line duration 1 study—[41] 1 study—[46]
Efficient (avoiding waste) Length of admission 1 study—[55] 4 studies—[36, 40, 48, 49] 2 studies—[38, 41] 3 studies—[44, 50, 52]
Hospital admission/readmission 1 study—[58] 3 studies—[38, 48, 52] 1 study—[49]
People-centred (accounting for preferences of service users) Usage of Kangaroo Mother Care 1 study—[55] 1 study—[42]
Maternal satisfaction 1 study—[48] 1 study—[35]
Timely (reducing delays) Waiting times 1 study—[59]
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