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Table 5 Covariates’ effect on the impact of the intervention on secondary outcomes in an intention to treat analysis

From: The implementation of academic detailing and its effectiveness on appropriate prescribing of pain relief medication: a real-world cluster randomized trial in Belgian general practices

  SO1: estimate [95% Wald CI] SO2: odds ratio [95% Wald CI] SO3: odds ratio [95% Wald CI] SO4: odds ratio [95% Wald CI]
Region (Flanders)
 Step change − 0.1550 [− 0.7237; 0.4138] 1.0049 [0.9663–1.0450] 1.0064 [0.9696–1.0445] 0.9705 [0.8587–1.0968]
 Change in trend − 0.1711** [− 0.2866; − 0.0557] 0.9860 [0.9695–1.0026] 1.0076 [0.9900–1.0256] 1.0100 [0.9347–1.0914]
Number of general practitioners visited by Farmaka before in the practice
 Step change − 0.0553 [− 0.2427; 0.1320] 1.0229* [1.0013–1.0451] 1.0156 [0.9853–1.0469] 0.9844 [0.8718–1.1115]
 Change in trend − 0.0024 [− 0.0730; 0.0683] 1.0014 [0.9910–1.0119] 0.9905* [0.9825–0.9986] 0.9865 [0.9600–1.0137]
Number of previously received visits
 Step change − 0.0057[− 0.0640; 0.0526] 0.9994 [0.9962–1.0026] 0.9989 [0.9951–1.0027] 1.0059 [0.9912–1.0209]
 Change in trend 0.0079[− 0.0055; 0.0213] 0.9999 [0.9973–1.0025] 1.0016** [1.0004–1.0028] 0.9975 [0.9923–1.0028]
Age of academic detailer (≥ 40 years)
 Step change − 0.2413 [− 0.5875; 0.1050] 0.9791 [0.9183–1.0440] 0.9627** [0.9357–0.9906] 0.9505 [0.8012–1.1269]
 Change in trend 0.0991 [− 0.0075; 0.2056] 1.0149 [0.9913–1.0391] 1.0023 [0.9855–1.0193] 1.0139 [0.9709–1.0589]
Academic detailer physician or not (physician)
 Step change − 0.3906 [− 0.9401; 0.1588] 0.9436 [0.8903–1.0001] 0.9551** [0.9231–0.9883] 0.9473 [0.8550–1.0496]
 Change in trend 0.0488 [− 0.0975; 0.1951] 0.9966 [0.9747–1.0190] 0.9991 [0.9773–1.0214] 1.0072 [0.9687–1.0473]
  1. Step change difference in step change between the intervention and control group immediately after the intervention; change in trend difference between the change in trend between the intervention and control group after the intervention; SO1 average defined daily dose of pain relief medication per patient reimbursed for an analgesic or NSAID per month; SO2 proportion of patients reimbursed for paracetamol; SO3 proportion of patient reimbursed for any nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID); SO4 proportion of patients reimbursed for both an NSAID and a proton-pump inhibitor among those reimbursed for an NSAID for the first time in 3 months; β 6 difference in step change due to the intervention; β 7 difference in the change in trend due to the intervention; *p value < 0.05; **p value < 0.01; underlined < 0.05 in all four analyses (ITT, ITT-V1, ITT-V2 and PPR)