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Table 1 Defining dissemination bias in the context of qualitative research

From: Applying GRADE-CERQual to qualitative evidence synthesis findings–paper 7: understanding the potential impacts of dissemination bias

GRADE-CERQual definition of dissemination bias in the context of qualitative research A systematic distortion of the phenomenon of interest due to selective dissemination of qualitative studies or the findings of qualitative studies
GRADE for effectiveness definition of publication bias A systematic under-estimation or an over-estimation of the underlying beneficial or harmful effect due to the selective publication of studies [31]
OPEN framework of (non-) dissemination of research findings The approach includes three parts:
1. Issues that need to be considered when exploring possible biases due to selective dissemination of research findings (What?)
2. Stakeholders who could assume responsibility for the various stages of conducting a clinical trial and disseminating clinical trial documents (Who?)
3. Motivations that may lead the various players to disseminate study findings selectively, thereby introducing bias in the dissemination process (Why?) [17]
Cochrane definition of publication bias The publication or non-publication of research findings, depending on the nature and direction of the results [18]
Cochrane definition of outcome reporting bias The selective reporting of some outcomes but not others, depending on the nature and direction of the results [18]