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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies (n = 14)

From: Effective strategies for scaling up evidence-based practices in primary care: a systematic review

Reference in chronological order General characteristics Targeted units Component of scaling-up strategya Outcomes Outcomes
Country economic status Funding source Clinical area Study design Setting Evidence-based practice   C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 Scaling-up processb Health system Provider Patient
Frieden et al. [51] MIC Governmental organization Tuberculosis Non-RCT State and district health tuberculosis units Treatment, short-course (DOTS) strategy for tuberculosis control Region, patient       Coverage    Sputum smear conversion, cure rate; treatment success
Price et al. [52] LIC Governmental organization HIV Before-after Primary health centers Basic HIV care Site          Reproductive health, services for children, curative services
Mutevedzi et al. [53] MIC Governmental organization HIV Before-after Primary health care clinics HIV treatment and care program Site, patient          Retention in care, mortality, loss to follow-up and virological outcomes
Renju et al. [54] LIC Governmental organization Sexually transmitted infection and reproductive health Before-after Health units (hospitals, health centers and dispensaries) Youth-friendly services (YES) intervention Site, provider         Knowledge and attitudes of health workers  
Curry et al. [55] LIC Voluntary/charitable body Child care Before-after Primary health care units Some items of Millennium Rural Initiative (EMRI) Site      Cost-benefit ratio of the EMRI program Health centre infrastructure and performance   Maternal and child survival
Goetz et al. [56] HIC Research funding body HIV Non-RCT Veterans' healthcare administration facilities A multimodal program to promote HIV testing Site        Semi-annual patient load per facility, number of patient visits per year, prevalence of HIV, complexity level Number of providers seeing the patients during the 6 months of routine testing HIV testing
Li et al. [57] HIC Governmental organization Preventing seniors' falls Before-after Local senior and community centers Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance Provider       Coverage; measures of program implementation, maintenance and effectiveness    Body mass index, incidence of falls, fear of falling, health status, number of chronic medical conditions
Miyano et al. [58] MIC Not found Tuberculosis CBA Hospitals and rural health centers Antiretroviral therapy (ART) services program Site         HIV testing, tuberculosis treatment outcomes (success, died/failed)
Comfort et al. [59] MIC Governmental organization Malaria Before-after Hospitals: rural health centers and primary health centers Malaria control interventions Site, patient        Costs incurred for malaria admissions   Hospital admissions, outpatient visits for malaria
Legesse et al. [60] LIC Governmental organization Child care Non-RCT Primary health care units Integrated community case management (iCCM) program Region, site, patient     Key indicators of iCCM implementation strength, quality of care, utilization of iCCM services, service    Syndromes treated (malaria, suspected pneumonia, diarrhea, severe acute malnutrition)
Solberg et al. [61] HIC Not found Depression RCT Primary care clinics The IMPACT (Improving Mood: Promoting Access to Collaborative Treatment) model Site, patient        Depression remission rates, satisfaction with care, work productivity, health status
Sim et al. [62] MIC Voluntary/charitable body HIV Before-after Public health facilities Linked Response (LR) model Region, site       Coverage    Pregnant women's access to HIV testing and treatment
Munos et al. [63] LIC Governmental organization Child care Non-RCT Health districts iCCM for diarrhea, malaria and pneumonia Region      Program targets of mortality and coverage, intensity and quality of program implementation, careseeking.
Singh et al. [64] MIC Voluntary/charitable body Child care Before-after Health facilities (health posts, health centers, and hospitals) Project Fives Alive! Site         Early antenatal care, skilled delivery coverage, underweight infants at child welfare clinics, under-fives
  1. MIC middle-income country, LIC low-income country, HIC high-income country, RCT randomized controlled trial, CBA controlled before-and-after, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, DOTS directly observed treatment, short-course, YES youth friendly services, EMRI Ethiopian Millennium Rural Initiative, ART antiretroviral therapy, iCCM integrated community case management, IMPACT Improving Mood: Promoting Access to Collaborative Treatment, LR linked response
  2. aComponents of scaling-up strategy: (C1) healthcare infrastructure, (C2) policy/regulation, (C3) financing, (C4) human resources, and (C5) patient involvement
  3. bSee Table 2 for more details regarding scaling-up coverage of the targeted units
  4. means that the scaling-up strategy component was used in the study