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Table 2 Five classifications for implementation strategies

From: Beyond “implementation strategies”: classifying the full range of strategies used in implementation science and practice

Classification Category of actor [10] Action target (determinants and levels) Example strategies Outcomes used to assess effectiveness Example strategy lists/descriptions
Dissemination strategies All 3 ISF systems Awareness, attitude, knowledge, and intention to adopt a specific EBI
Targets levels of intervention and individual
• Develop EBI messaging, packaging, and pricing customized to audience
• Distribute customized EBI messages and packages through channels with optimal reach
Distribution reach to target audience
EBI awareness, knowledge, attitude, and intention to adopt
Dearing & Kreuter (2010) [26]
Kreuter & Bernhartdt (2009) [27]
Implementation process strategies Delivery system How well teams execute activities required to select, adapt, and integrate EBIs generally
Targets level of process
• Engage stakeholders
• Assess context (need, capacity)
• Establish goals and objectives
• Select EBI and implementation strategies that fit
• Adapt EBI, strategies, and context
• Evaluate processes and outcomes
Extent, quality, and timeliness of the completion of activities related to specific implementation process strategies Aarons et al. (2011) [30]
Chinman et al. (2004) [32]
Institute for Healthcare Improvement [38]
Meyers et al. (2012) [33]
Integration strategies Delivery system Factors that facilitate or impede optimal integration of a specific EBI into a specific setting
Targets levels of individual and inner setting
For a specific EBI:
• Institute reminder systems
• Revise professional roles
• Provide supervision
• Modify medical record systems
• Implement tools for quality monitoring
Individuals’ motivation, capability, and opportunity to implement an EBI
Team coordination/ communication
Fidelity, feasibility, acceptability
Fixsen et al. (2009) [48]
Mazza et al. (2013) [3]
Powell et al. (2015) [2]
Capacity-building strategies Support system Motivation and capability to engage in implementation process strategies
(in general, not related to a specific EBI)
Targets levels of individual and processes
Across multiple settings:
• Training to build general capacity
• Technical assistance and facilitation for implementation processes
• Tools to support implementation processes
Individual and collective self-efficacy and motivation to engage in implementation process strategies
Team completion of implementation process strategies
Leeman et al. (2015) [6]
Jacobs et al. (2014) [39]
Wandersman et al. (2012) [49]
Scale-up strategies Support system Motivation and capacity to integrate a specific EBI into practice
Targets level of individual, inner setting, and outer setting
Across multiple settings:
• Training to build EBI-specific capacity
• Technical assistance and facilitation (EBI specific)
• Implementation toolkits
• Quality improvement collaboratives
• Benchmarking
• Recognition systems
• Infrastructure development
• Changes to fee for service lists/formularies
Motivation and capacity to implement, and actual implementation of an EBI across multiple settings Barker et al. (2016) [43]
Milat et al. (2016) [42]
  1. ISF Interactive Systems Framework, EBI evidence-based intervention