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Table 1 The relationships between our conceptual framework and benchmark works on OPR: types of participation

From: Organizational participatory research: a systematic mixed studies review exposing its extra benefits and the key factors associated with them

Our framework Waterman et al. 2001 [3] Munn-Giddings et al. 2008 [24] Holter & Schwartz-Barcott 1993 [17] Corwall & Jewkes 1995 [16] Hart & Bond 1995 [14]
Consultation: Non-academic partners are consulted by (and influence) researchers for research questions; and methodology, or collecting, analyzing, or interpreting data; and uptake or dissemination of research findings (no research co-governance). Consultation: Local opinions asked; researchers analyze and decide course of action. Passive participation: Providing input (information and data) for the study. Technical collaboration: Researcher identifies problem and intervention; the goal is to gain practitioner’s interest in the research and agreement to facilitate and help with its implementation. Shallow participation: Researchers control the entire process. Experimental: Researcher is the expert, participants are respondents.
Co- construction: Non-academic partners work actively with researchers in determining: Research questions; and methodology, or collecting, analyzing, or interpreting data; and uptake or dissemination of research findings (research co-governance). Cooperation: Locals, with outsiders, determine priorities; outsiders direct the process. Active participation: Making a contribution to the research process. Mutual collaboration: The researcher and practitioners come together to identify potential problems, their underlying causes and possible interventions. Increasingly deep participation: A movement towards the researchers relinquishing control and devolving ownership of the process to those whom it concerns. Organizational: Locals determine research focus and consult researcher to conduct research.
Co-learning: locals & researchers share their knowledge, create new understanding, & jointly form action plans. Professionalizing: Outside researcher and locals collaborate; roles are merged.
Collective action: locals set own agenda & mobilize to carry it out without outside initiators/ facilitators. Enhancement: Researcher as facilitator; assists practitioners to raise their collective consciousness. Empowering: Outside researcher and locals are co-researchers and co-change agents; Roles are shared.