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Table 3 Summary of hypotheses by theme and with examples

From: Advancing the literature on designing audit and feedback interventions: identifying theory-informed hypotheses

Themes(N = 30) # of hypotheses (N = 313) Example hypotheses A&F/A&F interventions will be more effective…
Related to the recipient
 1. Trust/credibility 14 If it is perceived to be without conflict of interest; when recommendations related to the A&F are based on good quality evidence
 2. Motivation/intention 13 If it is accompanied with positive reinforcement to those who have improved their performance; when accompanied by incentive
 3. Recipient characteristics 9 For those with a mastery goal orientation if it involves comparison to others
 4. Recipient priorities 9 When targeted at behaviors that the target feels is important to their professional roles/responsibilities
 5. Attack on self-identity 7 When measures are used to prevent a defensive response (providing other “reassuring” messages as well)
 6. Attract/maintain attention 6 If they engage the target’s attention
 7. Self-efficacy/control 5 If the behavior is under the control of the recipient
Related to the behavior
 8. Remove barriers 11 If they address barriers to change in behavior
 9. About aspects of behavior 7 For behaviors that are easy compared to those that are harder to do
 10. Decision processes or conceptual model 4 If designed with a clear understanding of the decision making process underlying the behavior to be changed
Related to the content of the A&F
 11. Cognitive load 33 If as few graphs as possible are presented; without unnecessary depth elements; if the graphical representations are clearly and consistently labeled; when color changes are purposeful and convey meaning; when presenting absolute numbers as opposed to percentages; when graphical clutter is removed; when focused on a few, most important behaviors
 12. Comparisons 26 When the benchmark comparison is justified to be a reasonable standard; when a comparator is provided; when multiple individual practice data is presented along with the recipient’s data; if it involves a comparison to the self; if the comparator is specific to the recipient’s own context/practice.
 13. Action plans/coping strategies 19 If clear direction on how to change behavior is provided
 14. Feedback specificity 16 If individual level provider data is provided; if patient-specific information is provided; if it is as specific as possible
 15. Goal setting 16 If it is accompanied by a goal that is specific
 16. Justify need for behavior change 10 If accompanied by evidence supporting the behavior change
 17. Cognitive influences 7 If emphasis is on what needs to be achieved (loss framing) as opposed to what was achieved (gain framing).
 18. Nature of the data 6 If graphical representation displays the variability of data in order to indicate the error or uncertainty
 19. Guide reflection 6 If it involves a personal reflection component
20. Improving memory 6 If the reminder messages are presented in real time/point of care; if incorporates an emotional message underlining the desired behavior
Related to the delivery of the A&F
 21. A&F timing 20 If individual change data over time is provided; when presented multiple times; when presented at the time of decision making
 22. Social engagement 17 If they involve engaging recipients in social discussion about the A&F
 23. Knowledge/learning 13 If it creates opportunities to learn
 24. User-guided experience 6 When complex information is scaffolded to allow a recipient to get more information if and when they want
 25. In-person A&F 2 When provided with human contact
 26. Responding to A&F providers 2 If they allow the recipient an opportunity to indicate why a recommended action was not taken.
 27. Opportunity costs 7 When there are few costs to change behavior
 28. Environment 4 If the environment encourages the desired behavior as the default.
 29. Development process involvement 2 When recipients have been involved in the design of the A&F
 30. Single hypotheses 10 If they imply some kind of extended commitment; if the recipient generates a response immediately prior to receiving the A&F; if the goal is made public; if it is provided to the intended target for behavior change; it includes multiple modes of information (e.g., pictures and text)