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Table 2 Range of self-described expertise and other areas of expertise by participant

From: Advancing the literature on designing audit and feedback interventions: identifying theory-informed hypotheses

Expert Self-described expertise Other concepts/areas of expertise referred to during interview
1. Brunswikian psychology, diagnostic judgments of physicians, use of vignettes containing clinical cues Lens modeling, evidence-based medicine, behavior change theory, face validity
2. Behavior decision theory, methodological theory of information integration—what cues people pay attention to Diffusion of responsibility, norm theory, SMART goals, loss aversion theory, scale compatibility, habituation theory, spacing effects
3. Human factors, health communication and decision making, gestalt principles, information science Theories of attention, international design standards, prospect theory, loss aversion, cognitive load, constructivist learning theory, intrinsic/extrinsic motivation
4. Self-assessment, behavior change, comparison models Guided reflection, learner centered agenda, teacher directed agenda
5. Diagnostic reasoning of physicians, dual process models, information distortion (gestalt) Learning theories, theory of planned behavior, extrinsic motivation
6. Human factors engineering, iterative design Theory of planned behavior, theories of operant conditioning, law of effect
7. Cognitive psychology, judgment decision making framework, information processing, linguistics Tufte theory, incentives, Lake Woebegone effect in social psychology
8. Applied work in medical decision making, hindsight bias Fast and frugal heuristics
9. Cognitive psychology—how people reason, formulate judgments, and make decisions  
10. Personality, social, and health psychology, principles of feedback control Self-regulation of behavior
11. Cognitive psychology, learning, memory, lab research on feedback  
12. Behavioral economics, psychology, rational choice Individual limitations, motivations, ego, mastery, social comparison
13. Organizational psychology, feedback research, feedback seeking behavior, feedback environment framework, information processing, achievement goal theory, personality Self-motives framework, self-enhancement theory, self-determination theory, motivation, dual process models, serial position curve/memory
14. Cognitive psychology, measurement, assessment, formative feedback, constructivism, active learning theories Cognitive load, growth mindset work (Dweck), goal setting theory, display of quantitative information (Tufte), graph design
15. Social psychology, attribution/dissonance theory, prospect theory, conflict and dispute resolution, study of influence Lewinian channel factor identification, self-perception theory, social norms theory, nudge theory (Thaler and Sunstein), motivation, Prospect Theory
16. Methodology, resource management principal  
17. Bjork’s desirable difficulties  
18. Psychology, dual processes, affect and emotion, numeracy and aging  
19. Goal setting theory Cognitive load
20. Social psychology, health communication strategies or health decision making and health behavior change, social cognitive theory, theory of planned behavior, adoption process model, social comparison theory, classic theories of attitude and behavior Study of influence
21. Control theory, self-regulation theory, goal setting theory, self-efficacy Reinforcement theory, partial reinforcement theory
22. Industrial organizational psychology, work motivation, team performance, feedback from the standpoint of individual behavior Self-regulation, control theory, goals and actions, subjective expected utility theory (theory of reasoned action, expectancy theory)
23. Educational theory, learning theories, constructivism, socio-cultural learning theories Reflective learning, motivation, peer learning, communities of practice, social learning, peer scaffolding, role modeling
24. Applying psychological principals in clinical practice, sociological learning theory, sociocultural theory, feedback interventions Discourse theory, activity theory, complexity theory, achievement motivation theory
25. Psychology, economics, ethics, patient physician communication, treatment decision making  
26. Education research, feedback in education, social cultural theory  
27. Industrial organizational psychology, Power’s control theory (self-regulation theory), Carver and Scheier’s social cognitive theory Gain theory, implementation intentions
28. Education, constructivist approach, basic notions of social psychology, multisource feedback or feedback to students from supervisors (Ross and Nesbett), social cultural theory (Vigotsky), humanist theory (Carl Rogers) Theories of behavior change, self-regulation, feedback intervention theory (Kluger and Denisi), motivation theories, informed self-assessment