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Table 3 Study characteristics (n = 157)

From: Specification of implementation interventions to address the cascade of HIV care and treatment in resource-limited settings: a systematic review

  n (median where specified) % (IQR where specified)
Study design
 Retrospective cohort 40 25
 Individual RCT 40 25
 Before-and-after 27 17
 Cluster RCT 23 15
 Prospective cohort 16 10
 Quasi-experimental 7 4
 Cross-sectional 2 1
 Case-control 2 1
Regiona
 Africa 138 87
 Asia 13 8
 Americas 7 4
Level of behavioral targetb
 Individuals—patients 75 62
 Individuals—community members 18 15
 Organizations 15 12
 Individuals—healthcare workers 12 10
Study reported a positive effect
 No 46 29
 Yes 111 71
Year of publication
 2004 1 1
 2005 0 0
 2006 2 1
 2007 4 3
 2008 6 4
 2009 7 4
 2010 18 11
 2011 17 11
 2012 29 18
 2013 18 11
 2014 8 5
 2015 15 10
 2016 24 15
 2017c 8 5
Sample sized (median, IQR) 955 400 to 4903
  1. aOne study included sites in both Africa and Asia
  2. bLimited to studies reporting a behavioral target (n = 120)
  3. cThrough 28 February 2017
  4. dSample size was determined by the number of individuals (patients or community members) included in the study, regardless of study design. Thus, sample size for cluster randomized controlled trials was recorded as the number of individuals, rather than the number of clusters