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Table 1 Overview of decision layers in the proposed architectural framework

From: Architectural frameworks: defining the structures for implementing learning health systems

Decision layer Consolidated Reference Model Role in the LHS architectural framework Relevant LHS dimension
Performance Prescribes priority and strategic goals, and measures to track goal achievement. Prescribes goals taken from IOM Strategic Map Goals
Scientific N/A Develops new transferable knowledge Scientific
Organizational Provides taxonomy with hierarchical description of the Federal Government in terms of sectors, business functions, and services. Provides organizational taxonomy of a health system and its organizational units as well as its external stakeholders Social
Data Provides four domain taxonomies relating to mission, enterprise, guidance, and resource data. Captures data sources for clinical and point-of-care data, and specifies data standards and lifecycle management procedures Technical
Information technology Categorizes applications and their components at three levels (systems, application components, and interfaces); categorizes information technology infrastructure components (platform, network, facility). Brings together applications and infrastructure components given their varying importance across LHSs Technical
Ethics and security Defines security controls and measurements related to, e.g., regulatory conditions, risks, and compliance. Adds ethical dimension related to privacy and security of patient data in line with existing legislative frameworks Ethical
  1. N/A not applicable