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Table 2 Patient characteristics and outcomes in intervention and control groups at baseline (unadjusted)

From: The effectiveness of a de-implementation strategy to reduce low-value blood management techniques in primary hip and knee arthroplasty: a pragmatic cluster-randomized controlled trial

Characteristic Intervention (n = 924) Control (n = 1040) p value
Joint, % knee 417 (45%) 485 (47%) 0.50
Age, years 69.3 (SD 10.0) 70.1 (SD 9.5) 0.053
Gender, % female 616 (67%) 708 (68%) 0.51
BMI, kg/m2 28.6 (SD 4.8) 28.7 (SD 4.9) 0.68
Smoking, % 128 (10%) 90 (13%) 0.047
Physical status classificationa    0.001
• % ASA 1 164 (18%) 201 (20%)  
• % ASA 2 631 (71%) 653 (64%)
• % ASA 3–4 97 (11%) 170 (17%)
Preoperative Hb, g/dl 13.8 (SD 1.2) 13.8 (SD 1.2) 0.30
Use of LIA, % 184 (20%) 221 (21%) 0.54
Use of TXA, % 213 (24%) 190 (18%) 0.001
Type of anesthesia, % general anesthesia 302 (33%) 295 (28%) 0.038
Use of blood salvage 275 (30%) 556 (54%) <0.001
Use of EPO (in EPO eligible patients) 62 (29%) 132 (51%) <0.001
Postoperative Hb, g/dl 11.2 (SD 1.4) 11.2 (SD 1.4) 0.40
Length of stay 4.2 (SD 2.9) 3.8 (SD 1.8) <0.001
Allogeneic transfusion, % 79 (8.5%) 62 (6.0%) 0.027
Number of RBC units transfused (in transfused patients) 2.5 (SD 1.44) 2.2 (SD 0.87) 0.093
  1. aDue to the small number of ASA 4 patients (n = 1), ASA 3 and 4 are combined