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Table 2 Primary outcomes of the identified studies and the reported effect size

From: A systematic review of electronic audit and feedback: intervention effectiveness and use of behaviour change theory

Study ID Intervention sample size; control sample size Outcome of interest Odds ratio (95% CI)
Linder et al. 2010 [38] I: 258 clinicians;
C: 315 clinicians
(1) Antibiotic prescribing rate for acute respiratory infection 0.97 (0.92–1.03)
Peiris et al. 2015 [41] I: 19385 patients;
C: 19340 patients
(1) Patients who received appropriate screening of cardiovascular risk factors by the end of study 1.47 (1.41–1.53)
I: 5335 patients;
C: 4846 patients
(2) Prescription rate of recommended medications for high-risk cohort 1.25 (1.16–1.35)
Thomas et al. 2007 [39] I: 252 patients;
C: 231 patients
(1) Diabetes care metrics for all participating residents’ patients at study inception and completion including haemoglobin monitoring in the prior 6 months 1.72 (1.20–2.47)
(2) Diabetes care metrics for all participating residents’ patients at study inception and completion lipid monitoring in the prior 12 months 1.75(1.18–2.59)
Carlhed et al. 2006 [34] I: 3786 patients;
C: 2940 patients
(1) Lipid-lowering therapy at discharge 3.26 (2.49–4.27)
(2) Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors at discharge 10.08 (7.31–13.90)
(3) Clopidogrel at discharge 1.96 (1.77–2.18)
(4) Heparin or low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) during hospitalisation 3.47 (2.89–4.16)
(5) Performed coronary angiography (or, for hospitals lacking in-house coronary angiography, referral to another hospital) 3.05 (2.57–3.63)
Guldberg et al. 2011 [36] I: 1196 patients;
C: 1050 patients
(1) Haemoglobin measurement sustained 0.86 (0.59–1.25)
I: 121 patients;
C: 91 patients
(2) Haemoglobin measurement initiated if no measurement at baseline 0.77 (0.45–1.33)
I: 1109 patients;
C: 887 patients
(3) Cholesterol measurement sustained 1.74 (1.35–2.24)
I: 208 patients;
C: 258 patients
(4) Cholesterol measurement initiated if no measurement at baseline 2.07 (1.38–3.12)
Carney et al. 2011 [33] I: 23 radiologists:
C: 9 radiologists
(1) Mean recall rates at time T1(0–9 months) 1.12 (1.00–1.27)
(2) Mean recall rates at time T2(9–18 months) 1.10 (0.96–1.25)
Gude et al. 2016 [35] I: 7341 patients;
C: 4591 patients
(1) Complete data on psychological functioning 1.07 (0.46–2.5)
I: 7341 patients;
C: 4591 patients
(2) Complete data on social functioning 7.95 (0.54–116.3)
I: 7341 patients;
C: 4591 patients
(3) Complete data on lifestyle factors 1.11 (0.45–2.75)
I: 4934 patients;
C: 4071 patients
(4) Disease specific education completeda 0.57 (0.31–1.06)
I: 5580 patients;
C: 4591 patients
(5) Lifestyle modification programme completeda 1 (0.48–2.04)
I: 4591 patients;
C: 7341 patients
(6) Improved quality of live after CR 0.99 (0.84–1.19)
I: 7341 patients;
C: 4591 patients
(7) Successful smoking cessation 1.02 (0.86–1.2)
I: 7341 patients;
C: 4591 patients
(8) Patients receive a discharge letter with remaining lifestyle goals 0.87 (0.27–2.81)
I: 4591 patients;
C: 7341 patients
(9) Complete data on physical functioning 1.32 (0.45–3.84)
I: 4591 patients;
C: 7341 patients
(10) Complete data concerning cardiovascular risk factors 1.2 (0.65–2.23)
I: 2922 patients;
C: 7341 patients
(11) Exercise training completeda 1.64 (0.57–4.71)
I: 4071 patients;
C: 4898 patients
(12) Relaxation and stress management training completeda 0.44 (0.14–1.41)
I: 4591 patients;
C: 7341 patients
(13) Cardiovascular risk factors evaluated at discharge 1.22 (0.4–3.76)
I: 4591 patients;
C: 7341 patients
(14) Improvement in exercise capacity 0.86 (0.69–1.07)
I: 4591 patients;
C: 7341 patients
(15) Successful work resumption 1.04 (0.86–1.24)
I: 4591 patients;
C: 7341 patients
(16) Moderately active lifestyle norm met at discharge 1.03 (0.82–1.29)
I: 4591 patients;
C: 7341 patients
(17) Vigorously active lifestyle norm met at discharge 0.88 (0.74–1.04)
  1. Note: I intervention arm, C control arm. aExcluded centres with incomplete data for this outcome