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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Using media to impact health policy-making: an integrative systematic review

Haq 2010 [41]
Study setting Health topic: maternal and newborn health
Pakistan
Population Target of media intervention: district-level health officials/policymakers
Characteristics of the media intervention TV talk show:
The aim of the TV talk show was to get on-camera commitments from three keys belonging to district health policy. The show started with a viewing of the documentary after which the host invited discussion by the participants. The discussion started with the panelists providing information on their plans to improve the MNH situation in their area. The host also invited members of the audience to raise their questions and concerns publicly on the show.
Date: The program series was aired from April to June 2007.
Level: national
Type of media: broadcast media (television)
Organizer: Pakistan Initiative for Mothers and Newborns (PAIMAN); a project designed to improve MNH in 10 districts.
Study design Qualitative method
Data sources: interviews with 20 out of 31 participants
Outcome Change in policy behavior/approach
Vasudevan 2009 [48]
Study setting Health topic: road safety
State of NE, US
Population Target of media intervention: the public
Characteristics of the media intervention Media and enforcement campaign:
The media and enforcement campaign is part of “Click it or ticket program”. The media campaign consisted of
-Paid media (paid television and radio advertisements)
-Earned media (ride-along with law enforcement officers, coverage of press event kick offs and upcoming enforcement events, newspaper coverage of enforcement campaign)
Date: May 2003, May 2004, and May 2005
Level: state
Type of media: broadcast media (television and radio), print media (newspapers)
Organizer: the state
Study design Quantitative method: before and after design
Data sources:
-Seat belt usage observations conducted at 50 sites in Nevada
Outcome Seat belt usage rates
Rehnman 2005 [47]
Study setting Health topic: alcohol control
Norrmalm (inner-city area), Stockholm, Sweden
Population Target of media intervention: the public
Characteristics of the media intervention Beer campaign:
Media intervention was part of a multi-component intervention named “The beer campaign” that consisted of a series of activities involving information/training, media advocacy, and monitoring. In 1998, The intervention also included meetings with merchants, sending post card to parents, training of staff, and media advocacy. In 1999, a follow-up study indicated no improvements, which was followed by a renewed intervention, with added components: merchants received individual feedback on sales in their shops, and they committed themselves to buy back the beer that was sold to the students in the study.
The media advocacy consisted of presenting the baseline purchase study and follow-up study a year later at press conferences. The results were presented in several newspapers, local radio, and television. Contacts were maintained with both local and national media during the following year.
Date: 2 years (1998–2000)
Level: county
Type of media: broadcast media (television and radio), print media (newspapers)
Organizer: The STAD Project (Stockholm Prevents Alcohol and Drug Problems)
Study design Quantitative method: controlled before and after design
Data sources:
-Purchase studies (controlled before and after design)
Outcome Successful beer purchase attempt
Sivaneswaran 2011 [46]
Study setting Health topic: water fluoridation/dental hygiene
New South Wales towns, Australia
Population Target of media intervention: the public
Characteristics of the media intervention Community education program:
Community education program including the organization of a public forum and the use of media. The use of media involved Fluoridation information kits prepared by the NSW Health Department containing relevant information on water fluoridation were also provided to the local media, Council offices as well as to those present at the public forums. In addition, a significant amount of information on water fluoridation was also provided to the community via the local newspapers, radio and television. Early during the campaign, NSW Health Department representatives met with the editor of the Mudgee Guardian to ensure balanced and impartial reporting of articles or editorial letters relating to water fluoridation and the editor was also invited to the forum.
Date: February 2005
Level: province
Type of media: broadcast media (television and radio), print media (newspapers)
Organizer: state (Mid-Western Regional Council, NSW Health Department)
Study design Quantitative design
Data sources:
-Surveys completed from telephone interviews
-Surveys completed from face-to-face interviews
Outcome - Support of the water fluoridation measure and adoption of fluoridation policy
Leurer 2013 [50]
Study setting Health topic: nursing education
Saskatchewan, Canada
Population Target of media intervention: Government/policymakers at the government level and the public
Characteristics of the media intervention Media advocacy:
Nursing stakeholders quickly reacted to the “January 21st” policy announcement by using media advocacy to convey messages designed to exert pressure on the government to reconsider the new policy. Media advocacy including
-Framing and releasing of news releases, letters to the editor, press releases
-Wide press coverage of nursing students protests
-Media interviews
Date: 3-month period following January 21, 2000
Level: province
Type of media: print media
Organizer: nursing stakeholders
Study design Qualitative media analysis:
Data sources:
- The print media sources included articles, editorials, and letters to the editor from The Leader-Post, the daily newspaper in Saskatchewan’s provincial capital Regina.
Outcome - Change in government policy
Harwood 2005 [44]
Study setting Health topic: Alcohol control
State of LA, USA
Population Target of media intervention: policymakers and the general public
Characteristics of the media intervention Media advocacy was an integral component of the coalitions’ work as they sought to affect public and legislative awareness and opinions about underage drinking issues. Some examples include solicited media coverage of rallies at the state capital, community information meetings, youth-lead community activities, and media interviews with coalition members for feature stories on underage drinking.
Date: 1997–2004
Level: state
Type of media: print media (newspapers)
Organizer: coalitions by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to reduce underage drinking
Study design Quantitative design
Data sources:
- Media data
- Legislative data
Outcome - Passage of alcohol bills
Gardner 2010 [42]
Study setting Health topic: Access to health care
State of CA, USA
Population Target of media intervention: policymakers and the general public
Characteristics of the media intervention Media advocacy activities including a combination of strategies:
-launching websites
-creating videos (some videos described the role of primary care clinics in specific regions of the state that were distributed to television stations and other venues)
-developing articles and letters to the editors for local and statewide newspapers
-working with local radio and television outlets
-television and radio interviews
-developing member clinic capacity to conduct media outreach
Date: the fund started in 2001 for 3 years and was renewed in 2004 and 2007
Level: state
Type of media: print media (newspaper, brochures, newsletters), broadcast media (television, radio, video), electronic media (websites) Organizer: Clinics Consortia
Study design Quantitative and qualitative method
Data sources:
-Annual Policy Advocacy Activities Worksheet
-Annual Grantee Interviews
-Policy Maker and Community Leader Awareness Survey
-Media Representative and Consultant Interviews
Outcome Effectiveness of media advocacy activities (increasing policymakers awareness, achieving a policy change or increased funding to clinics)
Gowda 2008 [43]
Study setting Health topic: water fluoridation
Northland, New Zealand
Population Target of media intervention: the general public and policymakers
Characteristics of the media intervention Fluoridation advocacy program including policy advocacy, community action projects and media advocacy.
Media advocacy included proactive and reactive media releases in local newspapers, letters to the editors of various communities and local newspapers. Other channels used were the provision of information on the District Health Boards (DHB) websites, participation in newspapers and radio interviews (e.g., talkback shows on the radio) and information through school newsletters. Positive messages were released to the media from Northland DHB and a network of supporters was established to respond to any letters or other initiatives from opponents of community water fluoridation. The timing of the positive publicity and reopening of the fluoridation issue was important in gaining support from other health professionals, Māori health providers, PHOs and the community.
Date: 2005
Level: district
Type of media: print media (newspapers), broadcast media (radio), electronic media (District Health Boards websites)
Organizer: Northland District Health Board
Study design Quantitative and qualitative methods (process evaluation)
Data sources:
-Written documents
-Field notes from direct observation and participation
- -Outcomes of community surveys
Outcome - Support of the water fluoridation measure and adoption of fluoridation policy
Niederdeppe 2007 [45]
Study setting Health topic: Tobacco control
State of FL, USA
Population Target of media intervention: policymakers and the general public
Characteristics of the media intervention The Florida Tobacco Control Program’s (FTCP) media advocacy strategy, a secondary program component, involved sending press releases and working with reporters to promote FTCP programs, media training for local SWAT leaders and promoting media events coordinated with local SWAT activities.
Date: FTCP was launched in 1998
Level: state
Type of media: print media and Broadcast media
Organizer: Florida Tobacco Control Program (FTCP)
Study design Quantitative design (event history analysis)
Data sources:
-Content analysis of news coverage
-Surveys
Outcome - Passage of tobacco product placement ordinances
Rock 2011 [49]
Study setting Health topic: food insecurity
Canada
Population Target of media intervention: policymakers and the general public
Characteristics of the media intervention Media advocacy:
The media intervention conveyed the message that food insecurity is a serious population health problem. The media intervention was implemented in an effort to increase public awareness about the negative effects of poverty on health in conjunction with the publication of a study comparing the perspectives of food-insecure and food-secure Canadians. The intervention included
-News conference
-Communication with journalists
-Video news release (VNR) and DVDs
-Media release
Date: 2008
Level: national
Type of media: print media, broadcast media and electronic media
Organizer: University of Calgary
Study design Qualitative design (content analysis)
Data sources:
-Media stories (to track media coverage)
-Emails (to track reactions from government representatives and social service providers)
-Hansard (the traditional name of the transcripts of Parliamentary Debates)
-Telephone and face-to-face communication
Outcome - Reactions of policymakers to media coverage