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Table 3 TDF identified barriers and facilitators of DPA

From: A theoretical analysis of the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of school-based physical activity policies in Canada: a mixed methods scoping review

Paper (author, year) Province Participants Method Scale Theory Total BFs identified (n) TDF barriers (n) Comments
Mâsse et al. 2013 BC Principals and teachers Interviews N/A DOI 24 ECR (9) Beliefs about consequences (4) SPRI (3) Social influences (2) Skills (2) Beliefs about capabilities (2) Knowledge (2) Theory was used to arrange study findings, but did not guide interview.
Kennedy et al. 2010 AB Principals, vice-principals, and PE teachers Survey Check all that apply N/A 12 ECR (8) Social influences (4) Skills (1) Knowledge (1) The survey contained preset answers; participants were allowed to give more than one answer. Frequencies (%) were reported, and factors were extracted if at least 50% of the respondents checked that the barrier was present.
Strampel et al. 2014 ON Teachers Survey Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree) N/A 13 ECR (8) Social influences (3) Beliefs about capabilities (1) SPRI (1) Skills (1) Knowledge (1) Frequencies, means and standard deviations were reported. Extraction and coding was based off frequencies. The middle anchor was “neither agree nor disagree” and any responses for this option were not included in determining if the factor was extracted. Some items were reverse scored, and therefore, these were accounted for in item extraction. All open-ended responses were extracted.
Patton, 2012 ON Teachers Survey Likert scale (1 = never to 5 = always) N/A 14 Beliefs about consequences (6) ECR (4) Social Influences (2) Emotion (1) Reinforcement (1) Intentions (1) Only extracted barriers that at least 50% of respondents believed sometimes, often, or always influenced delivery of DPA.
Allison et al. 2014 ON Key informants (involved in initial development and implementation of DPA) Interviews N/A N/A 24 ECR (13) Beliefs about consequences (3) Skills (3) Knowledge (3) Reinforcement (3) SPRI (2) Social Influences (2) Intentions (1) Beliefs about capabilities (1)  
Brown and Elliot, 2015 ON Teachers and principals Interviews N/A SET and ANGELO 61 ECR (22) Beliefs about consequences (13) Social Influences (13) Skills (6) Reinforcement (5) Intentions (3) Beliefs about capabilities (3) Knowledge (3) SPRI (1) Behavioral regulation (1)  
Rickwood, 2015 ON Teachers and administrators Interviews N/A CST 15 ECR (5) Beliefs about consequences (4) Social influences (3) Intentions (1) Beliefs about capabilities (1) SPRI (1) Participants discussed barriers more in relation to PE, coaching, and overall general PA; not always DPA-specific. However, DPA policies do include PE as a method to meet DPA guidelines, and therefore, all reported barriers and facilitators were extracted.
Alberta Education, 2008 AB Principals and teachers Survey Likert scale (1 = strongly agree to 5 = strongly disagree) N/A 33 ECR (13) Beliefs about consequences (11) Social influences (7) Beliefs about capabilities (2) Skills (1) Knowledge (2) SPRI (1) Only extracted barriers that received at least 50% agreement (somewhat agree, strongly agree). The middle anchor was “neither agree nor disagree” and any responses for this option were not included in determining if the factor was extracted. Principals reported less challenges associated with DPA implementation and perceived more positive outcomes than teachers. Despite this difference, the same extraction criteria applied irrespective of whether it was the teachers or principals agreeing/disagreeing that the factor was present.
Auditor General’s Office, 2013 ON School boards (principals and teachers) Surveys, interviews, document review Not reported N/A 3 ECR (3) Survey question type was not reported. Descriptive results were presented on the most influential barriers. These factors were extracted.
Gilmore and Donohoe, 2016 ON Teachers Survey Likert scale (7-pt scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree; anchors not provided) FMST 4 Skills (2) ECR (1) Knowledge (1) Beliefs about capabilities (1) Intentions (1) Only extracted barriers that received at least 50% agreement (agree, strongly agree). The middle anchor was “neither agree nor disagree” and any responses for this option were not included in determining if the factor was extracted.
  1. BC British Columbia, AB Alberta, ON Ontario, PE physical education, DPA daily physical activity policy, PA physical activity, DOI diffusion of innovations, SET Social Ecological Theory, ANGELO Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity Framework, CST Cultural Systems Theory, FMST Ford’s Motivation Systems Theory, TDF Theoretical Domains Framework, ECR environmental context and resources, SPRI social/professional role and identity, N/A not applicable