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Table 1 Summaries of daily physical activity policy evaluations in Canada

From: A theoretical analysis of the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of school-based physical activity policies in Canada: a mixed methods scoping review

Author, year Province Evaluation type Methods Data source(s) Study participants (n = sample size) Evaluation indicators/questions Main findings related to DPA
Patton, 2012 ON Implement QUANT Survey Teachers (n = 145) % implementation, implementation approaches, teacher’s perspectives (supports and barriers, attitudes) 45% often or always conduct DPA on days with no PE; 85% report sufficient resources and 89% report sufficient knowledge; 46% think DPA should be more structured; 65% reported lack of monitoring; 60% support DPA
Patton et al. 2014 ON Implement QUANT Survey Students (n = 146) Implementation approaches, barriers, attitudes 46% reported DPA every day there is not PE; barriers: student disruption, withholding DPA as punishment; majority of students agree that there is enough space/equipment/time to do DPA every fday and majority enjoy it
AGO, 2013 ON Implement MIXED Survey, interviews, document review School boards (teachers and principals) (n = unknown) Procedures for implementing, monitoring and measurement and reporting of DPA in schools Neither the Ministry or school boards are monitoring implementation; majority of principals reported students not getting DPA; barriers: lack of time and space, focus on literacy
Strampel et al. 2014 ON Implement MIXED Survey (with open-ended questions) Teachers (n = 137) Barriers and possible solutions to DPA implementation Barriers: lack of time, resources, space, and staff and student buy-in; possible solutions: new games with minimal equipment, more indoor DPA activities, better infrastructure, more resources, whole-school DPA approach, student leaders/DPA role models, school-community links for DPA
Robertson-Wilson and Lévesque, 2009 ON Implement QUAL Archival documents N/A Framework used to examine implementation approaches and challenges DPA policy accounts for several factors (allocation of resources, task specification) important for implementation but not all (sustainability of resources, policy value, evaluation plans)
Brown and Elliott, 2015 ON Implement QUAL Semi-structured interviews Teachers (n = 14) and principals (n = 5) DPA implementation approaches, facilitators, barriers, perceived outcomes, and suggestions for change Approaches: multiple breaks, student-led activities, integration into other subjects; facilitators: staff support, available resources, training sessions; barriers: lack of time, space, equipment, training, student motivation, and monitoring; outcomes: increased focus, enjoyment, classroom environment; suggestions: whole-community approach, more space, resources, and monitoring
Rickwood, 2015 ON Implement QUAL Semi-structured interviews Teachers (n = 5) and school administrators (n = 4) Perceived barriers, association between beliefs about DPA policy and student PA levels Barriers: diminishing priority of DPA, used as a behavior management strategy, lack of student motivation
Allison et al. 2014 ON Implement QUAL Semi-structured group and individual interviews Central players in development and implementation of DPA (n = 10) Factors influencing development and implementation, roles of key players, barriers, and current status of DPA Issues of flexibility and accountability; several relationships to assist with implementation; barriers of tight timeline, lack of support, insufficient training, lack of facilities, space and equipment, poor weather, increased teacher burden, lack of accountability; inconsistent implementation and lack of evaluation plan
Gilmore and Donohoe, 2016 ON Implement QUANT Survey Teachers (n = 136) Implementation status; perceived competence, motivation and skills to deliver DPA 46% of teachers reported that DPA is not being delivered; majority of teachers lack competence, motivation and skills to deliver DPA
Stone et al. 2012 ON Combination QUANT Accelerometer and classroom schedules Students (n = 856) Total PA, frequency of DPA schedule, and quality, number and duration of sustained bouts of MVPA (≥5 min), BMI Less than 50% get DPA every day, but for those that do they are more active, more likely to meet guidelines and less likely to be overweight; no child engaged in sustained MVPA for ≥20 min
Hobin et al. 2010 ON Combination QUANT Survey Students (n = 2379) and school administrators (n = 30) Student-level (sex, grade, #PE classes/week, MVPA minutes) and school-level (intramurals and interschool programs, DPA implementation model) characteristics 70% of schools offered DPA only on days without PE; student PA levels were associated with PE frequency but not DPA implementation model
Kennedy et al. 2010 AB Implement MIXED Interview or survey Principals/vice-principals (n = 55) and PE teachers (n = 7) DPA knowledge, % implementation, approaches, barriers 100% principals and teachers reported full implementation; 80% of schools provided daily PE
Alberta Education, 2008 AB Implement MIXED Survey Principals (n = 387) and teachers (n = 638) Resources and supports for DPA, PE, DPA activities, attitudes, challenges, monitoring status Positive perceptions of DPA, higher for principals; multiple approaches for implementation and challenges (scheduling, lack of facilities/space); 60% of principals monitor DPA
Watts et al. 2014a BC Implement QUANT Survey Principals (n = 351) Environment changes; minutes of PE per week and delivery method of PE ≥150 min PE/week increased from 34.1 to 48.1% before and after implementation
Mâsse et al. 2013 BC Implement QUAL Semi-structured Interviews Principals (n = 17) and teachers (n = 33) Perceived implementation, styles/change, factors that impeded or facilitated implementation of DPA Perceived implementation varies between principals and teachers; prescriptive vs. non-prescriptive approach; major themes: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability, facilitators (contextual factors)
  1. ON Ontario, AB Alberta, BC British Columbia, Implement implementation evaluation, QUANT quantitative, QUAL qualitative, MIXED, mixed methods, study used both quantitative and qualitative measures, Combination evaluation type means study/report examined some aspect of implementation process and policy effectiveness; AGO Office of the Auditor General of Ontario, PE physical education, MVPA moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, BMI body mass index
  2. aStudy examined nutritional policy in middle and high school, only relevant data from grade 6 and DPA examined