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Table 6 Effect of P4P on institutional delivery and on potential mediators

From: Understanding causal pathways within health systems policy evaluation through mediation analysis: an application to payment for performance (P4P) in Tanzania

  Effect of P4P (% change) Observations
Maternal care outcomes
Facility based delivery 7.87***
(2.4, 13.3)
300
Public facility delivery 7.4***
(0.9; 13.9)
300
Taken at least 2 doses of anti-malaria drug 11.2***
(3.9, 18.5)
300
Potential mediators
Health worker received supervision in last 90 days 19.2**
(0.2; 38.1)
266
Governing committee met in the past 90 days 30.1***
(8.1; 52.1)
291
Drugs at delivery-stock-out index (0–1 index) −31.3***
(−51.8;−10.8)
294
Oxytocin injection stock-out last 90 days −38.2***
(−62.8;−13.5)
293
Ergometrine injection stock-out last 90 days −34.9**
(−62.7;−7.0)
290
Antimalarial drugs stock-out last 90 days −22.8**
(−42.6;−3.0)
294
Service delivery disrupted due to broken equipment in last 90 days −18.6**
(−36.5;−0.7)
292
Health worker knowledge 18.9***
(8.4; 29.4)
300
Health worker kindness at delivery 3.27
(−2.42; 9.0)
300
Percentage of women who paid for delivery in a HF −7.6**
(-13.6; -1.6)
300
  1. 95% confidence intervals in parentheses; percent sign (%) indicates percentage points change
  2. *p < 0.10; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01