Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary statistics of maternal care outcomes and potential mediators at the baseline and endline and by intervention and comparison group

From: Understanding causal pathways within health systems policy evaluation through mediation analysis: an application to payment for performance (P4P) in Tanzania

  Baseline Endline
  Intervention Control Total Difference intervention control Intervention Control Total Difference intervention control
  N Mean (SE) N Mean (SE) N Mean (SE) T test (P value) N Mean (SE) N Mean (SE) N Mean (SE) T Test (P value)
Outcome
Facility-based delivery 1389 84.7
(36.0)
1485 86.8
(33.9)
2874 85.8
(34.9)
−2.1
(0.113)
1449 89.2
(31.0)
1462 83.1
(37.5)
2911 86.2
(34.5)
6.1
(0.000)
Public facility delivery 1389 76.7
(42.3)
1485 77.8
(41.6)
2874 77.3
(41.9)
−1.0 1449 81.6
(38.8)
1462 77.1
(42.0)
2911 79.3
(40.5)
4.5
(0.003)
Taken at least 2 doses of anti-malaria drug during pregnancy 1038 49.5
(50.0)
1212 56.7
(49.6)
2250 53.4
(49.9)
−7.2
(0.001)
1279 72.9
(44.4)
1252 69.2
(46.2)
2531 71.1
(45.3)
3.8
(0.036)
Potential mediators
Health workers received supervision visit in the last 90 days (%) 1315 88.7
(31.6)
1489 90.8
(28.9)
2804 89.8
(30.2)
−2.1
(0.073)
1165 98.5
(12.3)
1172 84.7
(36.0)
2337 91.6
(27.8)
13.7
(0.000)
Health facility with a governing committee (%) 1202 74.3
(23.0)
1384 70.5
(45.6)
2586 72.2
(44.8)
3.8
(0.029)
1119 80.6
(39.5)
1442 74.7
(43.5)
2891 77.7
(41.7)
5.9
(0.000)
Governing committee met in the past 90 days (%) 1345 94.4
(23.0)
1444 93.0
(25.5)
2789 93.7
(24.3)
1.4
(0.124)
1395 63.4
(48.2)
1442 44.5
(49.7)
2837 53.8
(49.9)
19.0
(0.000)
Minutes of health facilities governing committee meetings available (%) 1249 92.7
(26.0)
1300 80.5
(39.7)
2549 86.5
(34.2)
12.3
(0.000)
1193 90.1
(29.9)
1077 92.9
(25.6)
2270 91.5
(28.0)
−2.8
(0.016)
Health worker satisfied with relationship with local leaders (%) 1374 63.2
(48.3)
1489 58.2
(49.3)
2863 60.6
(48.9)
4.9
(0.000)
1430 63.1
(48.3)
1462 57.1
(49.5)
2892 60.1
(49.0)
6.0
(0.001)
Drug stock-out index-general (0–1 index) (%) 1323 54.6
(23.3)
1468 45.7
(27.8)
2791 49.9
(26.2)
8.9
(0.000)
1449 37.6
(25.3)
1462 45.7
(29.7)
2911 41.7
(27.8)
−8.0
(0.000)
Drugs at delivery-stock-out index (0–1 index) (%) 1323 54.3
(31.1)
1448 38.6
(34.4)
2771 46.1
(33.8)
15.7
(0.000)
1449 36.7
(32.6)
1462 48.8
(37.9)
2911 42.8
(35.9)
−12.1
(0.000)
Oxytocin injection stock-out last 90 days (%) 1302 42.0
(49.4)
1448 17.3
(37.9)
2750 29.0
(45.4)
24.7
(0.000)
1449 22.3
(41.6)
1462 33.7
(47.3)
2911 28.0
(44.9)
−11.4
(0.000)
Ergometrin injection stock-out last 90 days (%) 1286 65.4
(47.6)
1408 51.3
(50.0)
2694 58.1
(49.4)
14
(0.000)
1449 42.9
(49.5)
1462 57.1
(49.5)
2911 50.1
(50.0)
−14.2
(0.000)
Misoprostol tablet stock-out last 90 days (%) 1302 58.8
(49.2)
1428 49.1
(50.0)
2730 53.7
(49.9)
9.7
(0.000)
1449 44.8
(49.7)
1462 55.7
(49.7)
2911 50.3
(50.0)
−10.9
(0.000)
Medical supplies stock-out index (0–1 index) (%) 1180 39.3
(25.3)
1227 25.6
(23.2)
2407 32.3
(25.2)
13.8
(0.000)
1449 20.0
(19.1)
1462 21.3
(18.4)
2911 20.6
(18.8)
−1.3
(0.060)
Index of stock out of IPTp last 90 days (%) 1302 27.3
(44.6)
1486 19.5
(39.5)
2770 23.1
(42.1)
7.9
(0.000)
1449 6.8
(25.1)
1462 10.9
(31.2)
2911 8.9
(28.4)
−4.2
(0.000)
Service delivery disrupted due to broken equipment last 90 days (%) 1323 24.8
(43.2)
1468 12.5
(33.0)
2791 18.3
(38.7)
12.3
(0.000)
1392 5.2
(22.2)
1462 6.4
(24.4)
2854 5.8
(23.3)
−1.2
(0.174)
Intrinsic motivation score 1374 −7.7
(95.7)
1489 7.7
(74.1)
2863 0.3
(85.4)
−15.4
(0.000)
1429 −7.2
(93.2)
1462 8.05
(73.7)
2891 0.5
(84.3)
−15.3
(0.000)
Extrinsic motivation score 1374 −13.7
(68.2)
1489 1.1
(82.0)
2863 −6.0
(76.1)
−14.8
(0.000)
1430 −12.0
(68.5)
1462 0.5
(80.4)
2892 −5.7
(75.0)
−12.6
(0.000)
Health worker knowledge (%) a 1299 47.0
(27.4)
1467 67.7
(23.2)
2766 57.9
(27.0)
−20.0
(0.000)
1388 57.7
(9.8)
1347 59.6
(8.7)
2735 58.6
(9.3)
−19
(0.000)
Kindness at delivery (%) a,b 1389 74.8
(10.9)
1485 79.0
(10.1)
2874 77.0
(10.7)
−4.2
(0.000)
1449 88.9
(9.1)
1452 83.7
(11.7)
2911 83.8
(10.5)
0.21
(0.590)
Outreach visits conducted by health facility staff in the last 90 days (%) 1358 60.6
(48.9)
1424 58.5
(49.3)
2782 59.5
(49.1)
2.1
(0.258)
1449 73.5
(44.1)
1462 60.0
(49.0)
2911 66.7
(47.1)
13.4
(0.000)
Frequency of outreach visits performed by staff in last 90 days 1358 2.0
(2.8)
1424 2.0
(2.2)
2782 2.1
(2.5)
−0.0
(0.843)
1449 2.5
(3.27)
1462 2.03
(3.0)
2911 2.3
(3.1)
0.48
(0.000)
Health insurance scheme available in the community (%) 1358 79.8
(40.1)
1429 55.9
(49.7)
2787 67.5
(46.8)
24.0
(0.000)
1449 84.0
(36.7)
1462 62.4
(48.4)
2911 73.2
(44.3)
21.5
(0.000)
Number of community health insurance scheme members per HF 991 23.3
(40.9)
1144 14.8
(31.9)
2135 18.8
(36.6)
8.5
(0.000)
1369 36.9
(52.9)
1424 32.5
(56.2)
2793 34.7
(54.6)
4.3
(0.038)
Percentage of women who paid for delivery in a HF (%)b 1389 19.9
(20.0)
1485 14.3
(23.8)
2874 17.0
(22.2)
5.5
(0.000)
1449 0.133
(0.205)
1.462 0.119
(0.222)
2911 0.126
(0.214)
0.014
(0.082)
  1. a Kindness and knowledge originally ranked in from 1 to 10, but rescaled here from 1 to 100 for ease of interpretation of the coefficient
  2. b Calculated for each woman as average of the responses of all women in the same health facility catchment area, excluding the woman herself