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Table 1 Health financing, governance and human resources indicators tested as potential mediators linked to theory of change

From: Understanding causal pathways within health systems policy evaluation through mediation analysis: an application to payment for performance (P4P) in Tanzania

Steps on the causal pathway/mediators Indicators for measurement (data source)
Strengthened supervision - Health workers received a supervision visit in the last 90 days (health worker survey)
Active governing committees - Health facility with a governing committee (health facility survey)
- Health facility governing committees meetings held in last 90 days (health facility survey and health worker survey)
- Minutes of health facility government committee meetings available (health facility survey and health worker survey)
- Health workers satisfied with relationships between health facility and local leaders (health worker survey)
Availability of drugs, medical supplies and equipment - Index of stock out of 24 essential drugs in the past 90 days (health facility survey)
- Index of stock out of 5 drugs used during delivery in the past 90 days (health facility survey)
- Index of stock out of medical supplies in the past 90 days (health facility survey)
- Index of stock out of SP (IPTp) (health facility survey)
- Index of medical equipment functionality (health facility survey)
Health worker more motivated and knowledgeable - Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation score (health worker survey)
Improved patient provider interactions - Kindness during delivery ranked by women on a scale of 1–10 where 1 is minimum and 10 is maximum (women survey)
Adherence to clinical protocol - Uptake of IPT 2 during ANC (women survey)
Increased outreach activities - Frequency of outreach visits performed by health facility staff in past 90 days (health facility survey and health worker survey)
- Outreach visits conducted by health facility staff in the last 90 days (health facility survey and health worker survey)
Increase insurance enrolment - Health insurance scheme available in the community (health facility survey)
- Number of community health insurance scheme members per health facility (health facility survey)
Reduction in user charges - Probability of payment at delivery at the health facility (or public health facility) (women survey)
  1. Health workers kindness and knowledge have been re-ranked on a scale from 1 to 100 for ease of interpretation of the coefficients