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Table 5 Results of the secondary outcomes

From: Impact of a tailored program on the implementation of evidence-based recommendations for multimorbid patients with polypharmacy in primary care practices—results of a cluster-randomized controlled trial

Validated instruments Baseline T0 Follow-up T1 Estimate (95% CI) p value ICC
Control Intervention Control Intervention
MEAN (SD) MEAN (SD) MEAN (SD) MEAN (SD)
 MARS score (adherence) 23.3 (2.3) 23.3 (3.7) 23.3 (2.6) 22.3 (3.3) −1.2 (−2.8, 0.3) 0.11 0.18
 PAM score (patient activation) 3.3 (0.4) 3.3 (0.5) 3.3 (0.5) 3.3 (0.5) 0.1 (−0.1, 0.2) 0.48 0.08
 BMQ necessity score 4.5 (0.5) 4.2 (0.6) 3.3 (0.5) 3.3 (0.6) −0.1 (−0.4, 0.3) 0.68 0.20
 BMQ concerns score 2.5 (0.9) 2.5 (0.9) 1.4 (0.8) 1.8 (0.9) 0.2 (−0.2, 0.6) 0.24 0.11
 Number of PIM prescriptions per year [range] 0.9 (1.8) [0–9] 0.8 (1.8) [0–10] 1.0 (1.9) [0–9] 0.8 (1.8) [0–11] −0.1 (−0.4, 0.2) 0.37 <0.01
 Number of patients with ≥1 PIM prescription per year 32.3% (n = 42) 27.7% (n = 39) 30.0% (n = 39) 26.2% (n = 37) 0.9 (0.4, 2.0) 0.81 0.02
Self-developed survey (items with binary response categories)a Control Intervention Control Intervention Estimate (95% CI) p value ICC
% (n) % (n) % (n) % (n)
 Do you have a written medication list? 91.5 (118) 91.6 (131) 93.0 (119) 95.8 (137) 1.5 (0.2–12.3) 0.69 0.36
 I use my medication list as a reminder 53.4 (62) 60.0 (78) 61.0 (72) 65.0 (89) 1.0 (0.2–4.8) 0.98 0.32
 I usually show my medication list at doctor’s appointments 19.8 (23) 42.7 (56) 22.0 (26) 46.0 (63) 4.7 (0.8–29.6) 0.09 0.39
 I usually show my medication list in the pharmacy 0.0 (0) 7.7 (10) 5.1 (6) 28.5 (39) 12.9 (1.4–117.7) 0.03 0.42
 I use my medication list when taking my medicaments 55.2 (64) 45.4 (59) 63.6 (48.5) 59.1 (81) 0.6 (0.2–2.1) 0.43 0.20
Self-developed survey (items with five-point Likert response scale)b Control Intervention Control Intervention Estimate (95% CI) p value ICC
% (n) % (n) % (n) % (n)
 Do you find your medication list comprehensible? 96.6 (114) 93.1 (122) 89.8 (106) 90.9 (130) 1.3 (0.2–10.9) 0.77 0.41
 Do you dispose of the old medication list after receiving a new one? 78.0 (92) 69.5 (89) 77.1 (91) 75.9 (107) 0.8 (0.3–1.8) 0.51 0.04
 Do you carry your medication list with you (e.g., in your purse?) 33.9 (40) 36.9 (48) 37.3 (44) 48.3 (69) 1.3 (0.4–4.8) 0.64 0.21
 Do you note down on your medication list if you take a medicament which you have bought yourself? 13.8 (16) 18.3 (24) 16.9 (20) 25.0 (35) 1.3 (0.4–5.0) 0.65 0.19
  1. ICC intracluster correlation coefficient SD standard deviation CI confidence interval n number
  2. aNumbers show the percentage of respondents answering the item affirmatively
  3. bNumbers show the percentage of respondents answering the items with “always” or “frequently”