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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: Identifying the barriers and enablers for a triage, treatment, and transfer clinical intervention to manage acute stroke patients in the emergency department: a systematic review using the theoretical domains framework (TDF)

Author/date Aim of study Design Method of data collection Source of barrier/enabler data extraction Participants
Daniels et al. (2013) [24] USA To identify strategies for effective implementation of swallowing screening in patients with stroke symptoms that presented in ED Qualitative Staff interviews Barrier and enabler themes ED nurses (n = 8)
Gache et al. (2014) [30]
France
To identify the main barriers to effective implementation of Stoke Care Pathway in France Qualitative Semi-structured interviews Barrier typology derived from data Emergency physicians, neurologists, geriatricians, social workers, health care workers in rehab and nursing homes (n = 33)
Grady et al. (2014) [25] Australia To assess emergency physicians’ perceptions of individual and system enablers to the use of thrombolysis in acute stroke A web-based survey Questionnaire Responder’s agreement to pre-defined enabler statements Australian fellows and trainees registered with ACEM (n = 429)
Hargis et al. (2015) [26] USA To identify factors that may limit the administration of rt-PA in the emergency department at multiple stroke centres A web-based survey Questionnaire Responder’s agreement to pre-defined enabler statements ED nurses and pharmacists (n = 37)
Johnson MJ et al. (2011) [31] USA To describe emergency nurses’ perceptions of specific barriers and enablers to the care of stroke patients in the emergency department Qualitative Focus groups Barrier and enabler themes Emergency nurses currently employed in an emergency department (n = 10)
Meuer et al. (2011) USA To describe the pre-identified barriers to clinicians compliant with guidelines recommending the use of thrombolysis Qualitative Focus groups and one-to-one interviews Barrier listed in the coding guide with definitions Emergency physicians, nurses, neurologists, radiologists, hospital administrators, and hospitalists and pharmacist (n = 30)
Skecksen A et al. (2014) Sweden To identify and analyse the barriers and enablers to implementing national thrombolytic guidelines Qualitative Semi-structured interviews Barrier and enabler themes Stroke healthcare professionals (nurses and physicians) (n = 16)
Van Der Weijden et al. (2004) [32] The Netherlands To explore the opinion on possible barriers for working according to key recommendations for the acute phase a stroke care among neurologists Paper-based survey Questionnaire Responder’s agreement to pre-defined barrier statements Registered neurologists (n = 16)
Williams J et al. (2013) [29]
Australia
To identify barriers which prevent rural health care providers from utilising thrombolysis in acute ischamic stroke Paper-based survey Questionnaire Responder’s agreement to pre-defined barrier statements All rural sites within NSW Australia that had an implemented thrombolysis service as defined by the NSF and an Stroke Care Coordinator position were deemed eligible for inclusion (n = 11)
  1. ACEM Australasian College for Emergency Medicine, ED Emergency Department, NSF National Stroke Foundation