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Table 1 Implementation trials of developmental and behavioral screening

From: A system dynamics model of clinical decision thresholds for the detection of developmental-behavioral disorders

Reference Sample size Setting Type of screening Physicians’ recognition of disorders among children with positive screens (%) Referral rate among children with positive screens (%) Change in recognition rate attributable to screening (Relative risk) Change in referral rate attributable to screening (Relative risk)
Earls et al. 2009 [70] 526 Pediatric primary care Developmental screening   60.2% (95% CI 49.8–70.0%)   
Schonwald et al. 2009 [71] 759 Pediatric primary care Developmental screening    1.27 (95% CI 0.91–1.76) 1.18 (95% CI 0.72–1.93)
King 2010 [72] Not reported Pediatric primary care Developmental screening   62%a   
Guevara et al. 2013 [73] 2103 Pediatric primary care Developmental screening   86.4% (95% CI 80.2–91.3%)   1.94 (95% CI 1.47–2.58)
Dawson and Camp 2014 418 Pediatric community health centers Developmental screening   74.4% (95% CI 66.0–81.7%)   
Thomas et al. 2016 [74] 54 Family medicine clinic Autism, depression and developmental screening   10.3% (95% CI 2.2–27.4%)   0.65 (95% CI 0.23–1.84)
Murphy et al. 1996 [75] 379 School-based clinics Behavioral health screening   62.5% (95% CI 45.8–77.2%)   4.64a
Gall et al. 2000 [76] 383 school based clinic Behavioral health screening   80.8% (95% CI 67.5–90.4%)   
Hacker et al. 2006 [77] 1668 Pediatric primary care Behavioral health screening     1.98a
Stevens et al. 2008 [78] 878 Pediatric primary care Behavioral health screening 64.9% (95% CI 58.8–70.7%)   1.09 (95% CI 0.86–1.37)  
Wintersteen 2010 [53] 3040 Pediatric primary care Suicide Risk    4.33 (95% CI 2.5–7.6) 4.33 (95% CI 2.5–7.6)
Kuhlthau et al. 2011 [79] Not reported Pediatric primary care Behavioral health screening    3.04  
Berger-Jenkins et al. 2012 [80] 229 Pediatric primary care Behavioral health screening    0.89 (95% CI 0.66–1.12) 0.63 (95% CI 0.41–0.95)
Rausch et al. 2012 [81] 636 Pediatric primary care Adolescent Depression   58.0% (95% CI 43.2–71.8%)   
Jonovich and Alpert-Gillis 2014 [54] 356 Pediatric primary care Behavioral health screening 25.2% (95% CI 18.3–33.1%) 43.4% (95% CI 35.1–51.9%) 1.19 (95% CI 0.74–1.83) 2.38 (95% CI 2.15–5.75)
Romano-Clarke et al. 2014 [82] 600 Pediatric primary care Behavioral health screening   49.5% (95% CI 39.9–59.2%) 0.89 (95% CI 0.57–1.41) 0.85 (95% CI 0.43–1.69)
  1. aIndicates insufficient data to calculate confidence interval or to include in meta-analysis