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Table 2 Results

From: A multifaceted implementation strategy versus passive implementation of low back pain guidelines in general practice: a cluster randomised controlled trial

  MuIS groupa PaIS groupa ORb p value AORb p value
Referral to secondary healthcare (y)       
 After 12 weeks 27 (5.0 %) 59 (10.5 %) 0.52 (0.29 to 0.93) 0.027 0.52 (0.30 to 0.90) 0.020
Employment status (y)       
 After 4 weeks 113 (74.8 %) 117 (73.1 %) 1.18 (0.67 to 2.08) 0.563 1.26 (0.71 to 2.24) 0.424
 After 8 weeks 111 (77.1 %) 124 (72.1 %) 1.36 (0.76 to 2.43) 0.297 1.42 (0.89 to 2.26) 0.141
 After 52 weeks 101 (71.1 %) 109 (71.2 %) 1.02 (0.60 to 1.74) 0.947 0.95 (0.55 to 1.63) 0.850
Sick leave within 14 days (y)       
 After 4 weeks 54 (42.9 %) 60 (46.2 %) 0.87 (0.55 to 1.40) 0.577 0.90 (0.57 to 1.43) 0.658
 After 8 weeks 32 (25.4 %) 43 (29.5 %) 0.82 (0.44 to 1.53) 0.533 0.84 (0.44 to 1.61) 0.605
 After 52 weeks 17 (13.7 %) 19 (14.8 %) 1.00 (0.59 to 1.73) 0.981 0.97 (0.52 to 1.82) 0.922
Satisfaction with received treatment (y)       
 After 4 weeks 83 (56.5 %) 99 (64.3 %) 0.72 (0.48 to 1.07) 0.105 0.75 (0.53 to 1.07) 0.112
 After 8 weeks 81 (57.9 %) 114 (68.3 %) 0.64 (0.41 to 0.99) 0.046 0.66 (0.43 to 1.02) 0.061
 After 52 weeks 85 (57.8 %) 105 (68.6 %) 0.62 (0.39 to 0.98) 0.040 0.61 (0.39 to 0.95) 0.029
Satisfaction with treatment outcome (y)       
 After 4 weeks 71 (48.3 %) 82 (56.2 %) 0.68 (0.47 to 0.98) 0.037 0.72 (0.51 to 1.00) 0.050
 After 8 weeks 69 (49.3 %) 98 (60.1 %) 0.64 (0.39 to 1.04) 0.073 0.66 (0.42 to 1.05) 0.081
 After 52 weeks 75 (51.0 %) 102 (67.1 %) 0.51 (0.32 to 0.84) 0.007 0.50 (0.31 to 0.81) 0.004
RMDQ (0–23 points)    Unadjusted difference   Adjusted difference  
 Dif 4 weeks—baseline −4.23 −2.81 −1.42 (−2.88 to 0.39) 0.056 −1.34 (2.77 to 0.09) 0.067
 Dif 8 weeks—baseline −5.73 −4.59 −1.14 (−2.59 to 0.30) 0.121 −1.26 (−2.68 to 0.16) 0.083
 Dif 52 weeks—baseline −7.16 −6.50 −0.67 (−2.13 to 0.80) 0.373 −0.74 (−2.18 to 0.70) 0.316
Back pain intensity (0–10 points)       
 Dif 4 weeks—baseline −1.96 −1.54 −0.42 (−1.02 to 0.19) 0.176 −0.53 (−1.12 to 0.69) 0.083
 Dif 8 weeks—baseline −2.29 −2.31 0.03 (−0.57 to 0.63) 0.931 0.01 (−0.57 to 0.60) 0.972
 Dif 52 weeks—baseline −2.43 −2.77 0.33 (−0.27 to 0.93) 0.282 0.29 (−0.30 to 0.89) 0.328
EQ VAS (0–100 points)       
 Dif 4 weeks—baseline 10.57 8.78 1.79 (−4.13 to 7.71) 0.553 2.96 (−2.51 to 8.43) 0.288
 Dif 8 weeks—baseline 15.90 13.84 2.06 (−3.83 to 7.95) 0.493 2.46 (−2.95 to 7.87) 0.374
 Dif 52 weeks—baseline 15.46 14.89 0.58 (−5.34 to 6.50) 0.848 1.25 (−4.20 to 6.70) 0.653
  1. The primary outcome (referral to secondary healthcare) was measured after 12 weeks and was collected from registries with a 100 % follow-up rate, representing 54 practices. The intra-class correlation for the primary outcome was 0.015 (95 % CIapproximate 0.011 to 0.069). The secondary outcomes (employment status, sick leave, satisfaction with received treatment, satisfaction with treatment results, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), back pain measured by numerical pain rating [back pain intensity], and EuroQol VAS (EQ VAS)) were measured after 4, 8, and 52 weeks. All secondary outcomes were collected from patient questionnaires. A total of 475 patients, representing 50 (83.3 %) practices, participated in the questionnaires
  2. aData are number (%) or differences (follow-up—baseline)
  3. bData are unadjusted odds ratios (OR 95 % CI), adjusted odds ratios (AOR 95 % CI), unadjusted mean differences (95 % CI), or adjusted mean differences (95 % CI). Adjustments are made for patients’ age, patients’ sex, and practice size