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Table 2 Summary of self-management characteristics and outcomes reported in included studies

From: Characterizing patient-oriented tools that could be packaged with guidelines to promote self-management and guideline adoption: a meta-review

Self-management domain Intervention outcomes by delivery format (number of studies)a Sub-total
  Education n=38 Self-directed n=16 Multifaceted n=21  
  + ± + ± + ±  
Inform 1 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 5
Activate 2 1 1 5 1 1 1 0 0 12
Collaborate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Inform and activate 14 8 2 1 0 0 9 2 0 36
Activate and collaborate 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2
Inform, activate and collaborate 6 1 1 2 2 0 4 5 0 21
Sub-total 24 11 4 10 5 1 15 7 0 75
  1. + all reported results are positive (improved outcomes), all reported results are negative (no change or worsening outcomes), ± mixed results (a blend of improved, no change, or worsening outcomes)
  2. aThe total is 75 because two studies did not provide sufficient detail to categorize the type of self-management support offered; one used education and achieved a positive result; one used education, self-directed guides, and counseling and achieved a positive result [62, 85]