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Table 5 Example of change objectives for selected performance objectives

From: Using intervention mapping to develop a home-based parental-supervised toothbrushing intervention for young children

Performance objective Determinant Change objective(s)
Parent actively brushes child’s teeth with fluoride toothpaste twice a day Motivation and goals Intend to brush child’s teeth with fluoride toothpaste twice a day
Knowledge Know how to brush child’s teeth
Beliefs about capabilities (self-efficacy) Express confidence in ability to actively brush child’s teeth with fluoride toothpaste twice a day
Demonstrate ability to actively brush child’s teeth with fluoride toothpaste twice a day
Skills Develop skills to actively brush child’s teeth with fluoride toothpaste twice a day
Demonstrate appropriate PSB (i.e. twice a day)
Beliefs about consequences (attitude) Increase recognition of importance of parent actively brushing child’s teeth with fluoride toothpaste twice a day
Parent perceives themselves as responsible for keeping their child’s teeth clean Social role and identity Perceive and take responsibility for brushing child’s teeth
Beliefs about consequences (attitude) Believe that being responsible for child’s toothbrushing will improve outcomes for child
Social influence Believe that others important to them think they should be responsible for brushing child’s teeth
Parent manages competing demands on time/resources Knowledge Know how to manage social demands on your time and resources (e.g. siblings, family problems)
Know how to manage environmental demands on your time and resources (e.g. work commitments, financial issues)
Beliefs about consequences (attitude) Increase belief that proactive management of competing demands on time/resources will be beneficial
Beliefs about capabilities (self-efficacy) Express confidence in managing competing demands on time/resources
Skills Develop ability to manage competing demands on time/resources
Demonstrate ability to manage competing demands on time/resources
Social influences Manage social and family pressures on time/resources
Environmental contexts and resources Manage environmental demands on time/resources
Parent copes with problems faced with PSB Knowledge Knows about potential problems and how to cope with them
Skills Develop coping strategies to manage problems faced with PSB
Behaviour regulation Identify strategies to manage child’s behaviour in response to PSB
Beliefs about capabilities (self-efficacy) Express confidence in ability to cope with problems faced with PSB
Demonstrate ability to cope with problems faced with PSB
Environmental context and resources Identify environmental contexts that could lead to problems with performing PSB (e.g. tiredness)
Develop strategies to overcome environmental problems (e.g., tiredness)
If in different location, parents to pack necessary equipment to perform PSB in new location Environmental context and resources Identify situations where child will be in location different to usual location PSB takes place
Execute normal PSB routine in new location
Knowledge Know to continue brushing child’s teeth routine in new location
Know to pack child’s toothbrush and toothpaste
Beliefs about consequences (attitude) Increase recognition of the importance to brush child’s teeth irrespective of location
Beliefs about capabilities (self-efficacy) Express confidence in ability to brush child’s teeth in new locations
Demonstrate ability to brush child’s teeth in new locations
Nature of behaviour (routine) Organise PSB routine to take place in new location
Execute PSB routine in new location