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Table 2 IKT enablers, barriers, and outcomes

From: Integrated knowledge translation (IKT) in health care: a scoping review

Measures Reported findings Studies (n)
Barriers (9) Differing needs and priorities among participants 5
Lack of skill in or understanding of IKT processes 5
Attitudes about researchers or the value of research 4
Goals, roles, and expectations not clear 3
Lack of incentives to participate 3
Lack of funding or infrastructure for IKT 2
Little continuity of involvement due to staff turnover, infrequent attendance 2
Participants are busy with multiple responsibilities 1
Geographic distant imposes limits on interaction 1
Enablers (15) Multiple and varied opportunities for interaction 4
Strong leadership commitment, skill, and experience 3
Phased approach to develop shared language, achieve early successes 3
Support from facilitators, champions, and boundary spanners 2
Clear and agreed upon goals, roles, and expectations 2
Immersion of researchers in decision-maker setting/co-location 2
Formalized branding, structures, and processes 2
Establish partnership early in the research process 1
Openness of partners to listen, learn, and adapt 1
Organizational support for decision-makers to meaningfully contribute 1
Dedicated funding 1
Shared governance structures 1
Built on preexisting relationship 1
Availability of data to inform activities 1
Periodic external review to assess progress 1
Positive outcomes (12) Capacity developed by researchers and decision-makers 7
Decision-makers grew to value research 4
Developed an appreciation for the collaborative process 3
Enhanced relevance of the research 3
Decision-maker involvement sustained through entire process 2
Enhanced mutual understanding of language, work style, needs, and constraints 2
Number of collaborative projects undertaken/completed 2
Influenced policy-making 2
Influenced service delivery 1
Increased diversity of involved partners 1
Strengthened relationships, trust, and goodwill 1
Emergence of community leaders 1
Mixed outcomes (7) Decision-maker involvement varied across activities 1
Failure to overcome differences and bridge boundaries 1
Collaborations were temporary 1
Little to no research produced 1
Research not used in policy-making 1
Greater emphasis on research publications than stakeholder engagement 1
Benefits only beginning to emerge 1