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Table 5 Theoretical Antecedents of i-PARIHS (adapted from [16])

From: PARIHS revisited: from heuristic to integrated framework for the successful implementation of knowledge into practice

Focus of implementation Themes identified from theoretical analysis Indicative references
WHAT is being implemented: characteristics of the evidence, knowledge or innovation Broad definitions of evidence, linked to wider literature on innovation and knowledge generation and application
Embedded and emergent; influence and contribution of tacit knowledge
Importance of experiential and situated learning
Value of co-production
Rycroft-Malone et al. [6]
Kolb [66]
Lave and Wenger [67]
Rogers [33, 34]
Van de Ven et al. [36, 69]
Greenhalgh et al. [35]
WHO is being targeted: characteristics of the target groups for implementation Recognition of ‘want to’ and ‘can do’ factors (motivation and capability/capacity)
Importance of collectivity and learning within communities
Different responses to innovation and change
Different learning styles
Existence of boundaries between different groups/communities
Increasingly complex boundaries as innovation increases in novelty
Influence of social networks
Rogers [33, 34]
Weiner [71]
Michie et al. [70]
Cane et al. [65]
Wenger [87]
Gabbay et al. [39, 88]
Carlile [89]
WHERE: characteristics of the setting in which implementation takes place Organisations as complex, adaptive systems
Emphasis on learning at the individual, team and organisational level
Influence of culture and mental models
Influence of prior knowledge and experience
Importance of collaboration, coordination and networks for knowledge exchange
Plsek and Greenhalgh [72]
Argyris and Schon [90]
Senge [75]
Schein [76]
Grol et al. [79]
Harvey et al. [74]
HOW: implications for the process of implementation Distributed learning – through teams and networks
Importance of flexibility and adaptability
Tailoring approaches to different needs and responses
Reflective learning
Credible and trusted leaders and teachers
Distributed/shared leadership
Building relationships
Understanding and communicating practices
Rogers [82]
May and Finch [77]
Heron [83]
Deming [84]
McKee et al. [91]