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Table 1 Independent variables in study

From: Bariatric surgery implementation trends in the USA from 2002 to 2012

Variable name Definition Source
Environmental variables
 Proportion of eligible patients State-wide percent obesity BRFSS [25]
 CMS payment policy, NCD Year prior to National Coverage Decision (NCD) or year post-NCD, a key regulatory legislation of 2006 that limited the eligibility of Medicare patients to specific types of bariatric surgery performed in certified centers of excellence [29] CMS [29]
 Volume of previous surgeries Cumulative total volume of previous bariatric surgery rates AHRQ HCUP SID [24]
 Recession Recession was present in 2001 and December 2007–June 2009 Bureau of Labor Statistics [27]
Population characteristics
 Diabetes State-wide percent diabetes BRFSS [25]
 Age State-wide percent in age group 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69 US Census Bureau [26]
 Race State-wide percent black US Census Bureau [26]
 Ethnicity State-wide percent Hispanic US Census Bureau [26]
 Insurance coverage State-wide percent private insurance US Census Bureau [26]
 Income State-wide median family income US Census Bureau [26]
 Education State-wide percent high school diploma or lower US Census Bureau [26]
Medical practice characteristics
 MD champion Number of published peer-review journals on bariatric surgery per state Pub Med Systematic Literature Review
 Number of CMS centers of excellence (COE) Number of state-wide CMS centers of excellence CMS [28]
  1. All percentages/counts in the study were standardized with Census Bureau population estimates for each year and state to account for state population differences