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Table 4 Qualitative data collection methods

From: Study protocol for “Study of Practices Enabling Implementation and Adaptation in the Safety Net (SPREAD-NET)”: a pragmatic trial comparing implementation strategies

Method Type Who/what When How often / many Why
Interview Check-in phone call Point people (all) Begin soon after implementation support begins; continue for remainder of study Biweekly initial 6 months; monthly thereafter Logistics of implementation (trainings); unresolved issues; implementation surprises, challenges, solutions
Opportunistic interview CHC providers and staff during in-person site visits During site visits study years 2.5–4 As possible during 2-day site visits (12) Personal experience with “bundle” tools; barriers and facilitators to use
Semi-structured interview CHC providers and staff during in-person site visits During site visits study years 2.5–4 Minimum 4 interviews per clinic during 2-day site visits (12) Perception of implementation/change process; barriers and facilitators to change; effectiveness of support strategy
Phone interview CHC providers and staff at clinics not visited in person Study years 3–4 Minimum 2 interviews per clinic Perception of implementation/change process; barriers and facilitators to change; effectiveness of support strategy.
Debriefings Study practice facilitator. Study years 2.5–4 After each practice facilitation visit (45+) Clinic-specific strengths and challenges surrounding implementation; effectiveness of support strategy
Observation In-person observation Clinic workflows, team interactions, patient encounters During site visits years 2.5–4 Over course of 2-day site visits (12) How intervention tools used in clinical care; insight into practice characteristics that influence uptake
Document review Relevant archival data (e-mail conversations with CHC staff; clinic policies; etc.) n/a Throughout study As available Contextual information; insight into questions and negotiations surrounding implementation