Skip to main content

Table 2 The triangulation process [48]

From: Identifying the domains of context important to implementation science: a study protocol

Step Description
1. Sorting • The findings from each context study will be sorted and separated into three files (1 file/context study)
• The contents of each file will then be reviewed to identify its key categories
2. Convergence coding • A convergence-coding matrix will be created to compare the three files with respect to:
 ° the meaning and interpretation of categories
 ° the frequency and prominence of categories
 ° specific examples supporting or explaining a particular category
• A convergence-coding scheme will then be applied:
 • Agreement (full agreement between the sets of results on both elements of comparison, e.g., meaning and prominence are the same)
 • Partial agreement (agreement on one but not both components, e.g. meaning or prominence of categories is the same)
 • Silence (one set of results covers the category or example while another set of results is silent on the category or example)
 • Dissonance (disagreement between the sets of results on both elements of comparison, e.g., meaning and prominence are different; and specific examples provided are different)
• The purpose of this coding scheme is to:
 ° determine convergence between the three sets of results on the identity and prominence of the categories presented
 ° determine convergence of the coverage and specific examples provided in relation to each category
3. Convergence assessment • All compared segments will be reviewed to provide a global assessment of the level of convergence
• When and where team members have different perspectives on convergence or dissonance will be documented
4. Completeness comparison • The nature and scope of the context domains (and their features) will be compared for each inquiry to enhance the completeness of our united set of findings and identify key differences in scope/coverage
• In this step, the aim is to broaden the range of findings to ensure completeness in perspective and how a category is characterized
• To obtain a holistic view of the data, categories will now also be synthesized into broader themes through consensus
5. Team member comparison and 6. feedback Steps 5 and 6 will occur concurrently
 • The assessments of convergence/dissonance and completeness of the united set of findings among the team will be compared to:
  ° clarify interpretations of the findings and
  ° reach consensus
 • At a face-to-face team meeting, a 1-day discussion will be held where findings of the triangulation will be provided to the full research team for feedback and discussion
 • In instances of disagreement, the rationale behind the assigned categories
 • and themes will be discussed to come to consensus. Level of agreement between the team should meet or exceed 70
 • Any changes proposed by the team (where they can be accommodated by overall findings) into final data interpretation will be incorporated