Skip to main content

Table 1 Instruments used as primary and secondary outcome measures

From: COSMOS—improving the quality of life in nursing home patients: protocol for an effectiveness-implementation cluster randomized clinical hybrid trial

  What does the tool measure Tool characteristics & psychometric properties
QUALID*† [49] QoL by cognitive function, health, function, social and psychological well-being. 11 behaviours rated on a 5-point Likert scale (range 11–55). Excellent reliability, internal consistency and validity are reported. Lower score indicates higher QoL
QUALIDEM*† [50] QoL by self-image, affect, restlessness, care and social relation, feeling at home & active. 40 items scored 0–3 in 10 subscales yielding a sum score for each subscale; care relationship (0–21), positive affect (0–18), negative affect (0–9), restless tense behaviour (0–9), positive self-image (0–9), social relations (0–18), feeling at home (0–12), having something to do (0–6), undefined items (0–9). Sufficient reliability and validity are reported
EQ-5D*† [51, 69] QoL by mobility, self-care, activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression, and impression of health Patient or care-giver indicates patient`s state in f the 5 dimensions, according to 3 levels: no, some or extreme problems, and total impression of health (0–100). Scarce evidence for use in NH setting & with/in people with dementia
NPI-NH*† [52, 70] Neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia, caregiver distress. Total and subscale scores are provided based on frequency & severity of symptoms (range 0–144). Good validity and reliability of the Norwegian version of the NPI-NH. Including The neuropsychiatric inventory caregiver distress scale
CMAI*† [53, X7] Agitation & behavioural disturbances 29 items (range 29–203). Good validity & reliability
CSDD*† [54] Depression in people with dementia 19 items rated from 0=no symptom to 2=severe. ≥8 = depression, >12=moderate-severe depression. Satisfactory inter-rater reliability and validity
MOBID-2 Pain Scale*† [55] Two-part pain location and intensity in people with advanced dementia. Pain intensity inferred by the patient’s pain behaviours during standardized, guided movements (Part 1), and pain behaviours related to internal organs, head and skin (Part 2). Excellent reliability, validity and good responsiveness
MMSE † [71] Differentiation of severity of cognitive impairment 30-point scale where 0 to 11=severe impairment, 12 to 17=moderate, 18 to 23=mild, 24 to 30=no impairment
FAST*† [42, X14] Severity of dementia Stages dementia in 7 stages, 1 normal, 2 normal ageing, 3 possible dementia, 4 mild, 5 moderate, 6 and 7 severe dementia. Good reliability and validity
ADL*† [57] Physical function by rating activities; feeding, moving, toilet and dressing. The scale includes 6 items (range 0–30) Lower values indicates better functioning and independence
CGIC* [72] Perceived improvement and efficacy 7-point rating ranging from very much worse (0) to very much improved (6). Not intended as a sensitive measure of small changes, but for changes considered clinically significant.
RUD-FOCA* [44] Cost-analysis of time use during 24 hours Total time per 24 hours is summed and mean time is calculated by records of required care. Validated for use in NHs, acceptable test-retest reliability and construct validity
  1. * Proxy rated instrument, † Validated for use in people with dementia, ADL Physical Self-Maintenance Scale, FAST Functional Assessment Staging, CGIC Clinical Global Impression of Change, CMAI Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, CSDD Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, EQ-5D European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, MOBID 2 Mobilization-Observation-Behaviour-Intensity-Dementia 2 Pain Scale, NPI-NH Neuropsychiatric Inventory- NH version, QoL Quality of life, QUALID quality of life in late-stage dementia, QUALIDEM Quality of life in Dementia, RUD-FOCA Resource Utilization in Dementia – Formal Care