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Table 2 Dissemination and implementation research competencies by domain

From: Developing educational competencies for dissemination and implementation research training programs: an exploratory analysis using card sorts

Number Competency Expertisea
Section A: Definition, Background, and Rationale
 A1 Define and communicate D&I research terminology. B
 A2 Define what is and what is not D&I research. B
 A3 Differentiate between D&I research and other related areas, such as efficacy research and effectiveness research. B
 A4 Identify the potential impact of disseminating, implementing, and sustaining effective interventions. B
 A5 Describe the range of expertise needed to conduct D&I research (e.g., mixed method experience, economic, organizational, policy, clinical). B
 A6 Determine which evidence-based interventions are worth disseminating and implementing. I
 A7 Assess, describe, and quantify (where possible) the context for effective D&I (setting characteristics, culture, capacity, and readiness). I
 A8 Identify existing gaps in D&I research. I
 A9 Identify the potential impact of scaling down (aka de-implementing) an ineffective but often used intervention. I
 A10 Formulate methods to address barriers of D&I research. I
Section B: Theory and Approaches
 B1 Describe a range of D&I strategies, models, and frameworks. B
 B2 Identify appropriate conceptual models, frameworks, or program logic for D&I change. I
 B3 Identify core elements (effective ingredients) of effective interventions, and recognize risks of making modifications to these. I
 B4 Describe a process for designing for dissemination (planning for adoption, implementation, and sustainability during the intervention development stage). I
 B5 Describe the relationships between various organizational dimensions (e.g., climate, culture) and D&I research. I
 B6 Explain how knowledge from disciplines outside of health (e.g., business, marketing, and engineering) can help inform further transdisciplinary efforts in D&I research. I
 B7 Identify and articulate the interplay between policy and organizational processes in D&I. I
Section C: Design & Analysis
 C1 Describe the core components of external validity and their relevance to D&I research. B
 C2 Identify common D&I measures and analytic strategies relevant for your research question(s). B
 C3 Identify and measure outcomes that matter to stakeholders, adopters, and implementers. I
 C4 Describe the application and integration of mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) approaches in D&I research. I
 C5 Apply common D&I measures and analytic strategies relevant for your research question(s) within your model/framework. I
 C6 Identify possible methods to address external validity in study design reporting and implementation. I
 C7 List the potential roles of mediators and moderators in a D&I study. I
 C8 Identify and articulate the trade-offs between a variety of different study designs for D&I research. I
 C9 Describe how to frame and analyze the context of D&I as a complex system with interacting parts. I
 C10 Effectively integrate the concepts of sustainability/sustainment and the rationale behind them in D&I study design. I
 C11 Describe gaps in D&I measurement and critically evaluate how to fill them. A
 C12 Effectively explain and incorporate concepts of de-adoption and de-implementation into D&I study design. A
 C13 Incorporate methods of economic evaluation (e.g., implementation costs, cost-effectiveness) in D&I study design. A
 C14 Evaluate and refine innovative scale-up and spread methods (e.g., technical assistance, interactive systems, novel incentives, and “pull” strategies). A
Section D: Practice-Based Considerations
 D1 Describe the importance of incorporating the perspectives of different stakeholder groups (e.g., patient/family, employers, payers, healthcare settings, public organizations, community, and policy makers). B
 D2 Describe the concept and measurement of fidelity. B
 D3 Articulate the strengths and weaknesses of participatory research in D&I research. B
 D4 Determine when engagement in participatory research is appropriate with D&I research. I
 D5 Describe the appropriate process for eliciting input from community-based practitioners for adapting an intervention. I
 D6 Identify and apply techniques for stakeholder analysis and engagement when implementing evidence-based practices. I
 D7 Identify a process for adapting an intervention and how the process is relevant to D&I research. I
 D8 Explain how to maintain fidelity of original interventions during the adaption process. I
 D9 Identify sites to participate in D&I studies, and negotiate or provide incentives to secure their involvement. I
 D10 Identify and develop sustainable partnerships for D&I research. I
 D11 Describe how to measure successful partnerships for D&I research. I
 D12 Use evidence to evaluate and adapt D&I strategies for specific populations, settings, contexts, resources, and/or capacities. A
  1. aExpertise levels: B = Beginner; I = Intermediate; A = Advanced