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Table 1 A summary of the 73 implementation strategies, organized by cluster with mean importance and feasibility ratings

From: Use of concept mapping to characterize relationships among implementation strategies and assess their feasibility and importance: results from the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) study

   Importance Feasibility Go-zone quadrant
  Use evaluative and iterative strategies 4.19 4.01
4  Assess for readiness and identify barriers and facilitators 4.60 4.57 I
5  Audit and provide feedback 4.40 4.13 I
56  Purposefully reexamine the implementation 4.40 4.03 I
26  Develop and implement tools for quality monitoring 4.37 3.63 I
27  Develop and organize quality monitoring systems 4.33 3.37 I
23  Develop a formal implementation blueprint 4.30 4.47 I
18  Conduct local need assessment 4.27 4.33 I
61  Stage implementation scale up 3.97 3.77 I
46  Obtain and use patients/consumers and family feedback 3.67 3.80 I
14  Conduct cyclical small tests of change 3.63 4.03 I
  Provide interactive assistance 3.67 3.29
33  Facilitation 4.13 3.77 I
54  Provide local technical assistance 3.97 3.20 IV
53  Provide clinical supervision 3.83 3.10 IV
8  Centralize technical assistance 2.73 3.10 III
  Adapt and tailor to context 3.59 3.30
63  Tailor strategies 4.37 4.00 I
51  Promote adaptability 3.90 3.57 I
67  Use data experts 3.23 3.13 III
68  Use data warehousing techniques 2.87 2.50 III
  Develop stakeholder interrelationships 3.47 3.64
35  Identify and prepare champions 4.20 3.77 I
48  Organize clinician implementation team meetings 3.97 3.53 I
57  Recruit, designate, and train for leadership 3.93 3.20 IV
38  Inform local opinion leaders 3.90 4.03 I
6  Build a coalition 3.77 3.63 I
47  Obtain formal commitments 3.77 3.17 IV
36  Identify early adopters 3.70 3.70 I
17  Conduct local consensus discussions 3.63 4.07 I
7  Capture and share local knowledge 3.63 3.87 I
64  Use advisory boards and workgroups 3.40 3.87 I
65  Use an implementation advisor 3.30 3.70 I
45  Model and simulate change 3.30 3.20 II
72  Visit other sites 3.17 3.73 II
40  Involve executive boards 2.97 3.63 II
25  Develop an implementation glossary 2.87 4.57 II
24  Develop academic partnerships 2.83 3.40 II
52  Promote network weaving 2.70 2.77 III
  Train and educate stakeholders 3.43 3.93
19  Conduct ongoing training 4.17 3.87 I
55  Provide ongoing consultation 4.17 3.63 I
29  Develop educational materials 3.80 4.83 I
43  Make training dynamic 3.67 4.00 I
31  Distribute educational materials 3.50 4.77 I
71  Use train-the-trainer strategies 3.33 3.50 I
15  Conduct educational meetings 3.27 4.50 I
16  Conduct educational outreach visits 3.10 4.07 II
20  Create a learning collaborative 3.10 3.43 II
60  Shadow other experts 2.87 3.37 II
73  Work with educational institutions 2.73 3.30 II
  Support clinicians 3.23 3.06
32  Facilitate relay of clinical data to providers 4.17 3.43 I
58  Remind clinicians 3.23 3.77 II
30  Develop resource sharing agreements 3.07 3.13 III
59  Revise professional roles 3.00 2.30 III
21  Create new clinical teams 2.67 2.67 III
  Engage consumers 3.25 2.95
41  Involve patients/consumers and family members 3.87 3.63 I
39  Intervene with patients/consumers to enhance uptake and adherence 3.50 3.07 IV
50  Prepare patients/consumers to be active participants 3.40 3.03 IV
37  Increase demand 3.30 2.33 II
69  Use mass media 2.17 2.70 III
  Utilize financial strategies 2.86 2.09
34  Fund and contract for the clinical innovation 3.67 2.43 IV
1  Access new funding 3.57 2.40 IV
49  Place innovation on fee for service lists/formularies 3.40 2.10 IV
2  Alter incentive/allowance structures 3.17 2.23 III
42  Make billing easier 2.93 1.77 III
3  Alter patient/consumer fees 2.60 2.03 III
70  Use other payment schemes 2.30 1.87 III
28  Develop disincentives 2.17 2.13 III
66  Use capitated payments 1.97 1.80 III
  Change infrastructure 2.40 2.01
44  Mandate change 3.23 2.63 III
12  Change record systems 2.83 2.23 III
11  Change physical structure and equipment 2.60 2.27 III
22  Create or change credentialing and/or licensure standards 2.23 1.47 III
13  Change service sites 2.20 2.20 III
9  Change accreditation or membership requirements 2.17 1.80 III
62  Start a dissemination organization 2.03 2.13 III
10  Change liability laws 1.87 1.33 III
  1. Strategies are organized by rank order of mean importance ratings from the highest to the lowest within each cluster. The importance rating scale ranged from 1 (relatively unimportant) to 5 (extremely important), and the feasibility scale ranged from 1 (not at all feasible) to 5 (extremely feasible). The rightmost column depicts the Go-zone quadrant into which each of the strategies falls based on the scale mean cutoffs (see Fig. 2). Go-zone quadrant I: Importance and feasibility are both above the scale means. Go-zone quadrant II: Importance rating is lower and feasibility rating is higher than the scale means. Go-zone quadrant III: Importance and feasibility ratings are both below scale means. Go-zone quadrant IV: Importance rating higher and feasibility lower than scale means