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Table 2 Effect of strategies specified to setting

From: Implementation of improvement strategies in palliative care: an integrative review

Strategy No. Primary care Hospital Nursing home Hospice Other, multiple or unknown settings
Single intervention studies Lecture 3   Ke, 2008 (++)   Schim, 2006 (+) Ersek, 2006 (++)
Study day 2      Carr, 2003 (+); Dryden, 2009 (+)
Role play 2   Hales, 2008 (+)    Back, 2007 (+)
Interactive education 2   Bruneau, 2004 (−); Cooke, 2004 (+)    
Outreach visit 1      Newton, 2009 (+)
Computer-facilitated education 4   Hulsman, 2002 (−); Jarabek, 2008 (++)    Ersek, 2008 (++); Smith, 2010 (+)
Process mapping 1    Taylor, 2007 (+)   
Feedback 1   Velikova, 2004 (+)    
Multidisciplinary meetings 1   Lilly, 2000; Lilly, 2003 (++)    
Multi-faceted intervention studies Multi-educational interventions 25 Reymond, 2005 (++) Bylund, 2010 (+/−); Furman, 2006 (+/−); Betcher, 2010 (+); Hall, 2007 (+); Kinnane, 2009 (+); Razavi, 2002 and Delvaux, 2004 (+); Fischer, 2007 (++); Kruse, 2008 (++); Bailey, 2005 (++); Fallowfield, 2001 (++); Gueguen, 2009 (++);Sutherland, 2007 (++); Yamagishi, 2009 (++) Weissman, 2000 (+); Weissman, 2001 (+)   Bravemen, 2001 (+/−); Razavi, 2003 and Lienard, 2006 and Lienard, 2008 and Merckaert 2008 (+/−); Wilkinson, 2008 (+); Finset, 2003 (+); Favre, 2007 (++); Quinn, 2008 (++); Sullivan, 2005 (++); Wilkinson, 2002 (++); Wilkinson, 2003 (++)
Mixed interventions 26 Boakes, 2000 (++) Butow, 2008 (−); Curtis, 2011 (−); Fallowfield, 2002 and Jenkins, 2002 and Shilling, 2003 and Fallowfield, 2003 (+/−); Hansen, 2009 (+/−); Hills, 2009 (+/−); Jacobs, 2002 (+/−); McCormick, 2010 (+/−); Morgan, 2010 (+/−); Roila, 2004 (+/−); Kinley, 2004 (+); Lankshear, 2010 (+); Mirando, 2005 (+); Monteleoni, 2004 (+); Okon, 2009 (+); Smith, 2009 (+); Bookbinder, 2005 (++); Dauer, 2006 (++) Hanson, 2005 (+); Hockley, 2010 (+); Lyon, 2007 (+); Reynolds, 2004 (+); Strumpf, 2004 (+); Keay, 2003 (++)   Stacey, 2008 (+); Woo, 2011 (+)
  1. ++ significant improvement, + improvement, +/− mixed or limited effect, no effect