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Table 1 Coding of domains targeted in the intervention and control groups

From: Understanding effects in reviews of implementation interventions using the Theoretical Domains Framework

Study Intervention group: domains targeted Control group: domains targeted
Gardner 2005 Patient None identified
 • Knowledge (knowledge from 15-min educational visit)
 • Beliefs about consequences (T: effectiveness of therapies)
 • Environmental context and resources (material resource of questions)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from telephone call at 6 weeks)
 • Beliefs about consequences (call may have targeted beliefs about consequences of seeking follow-up with PCP)
PCP
 • Goals (questions are goals and action plans)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (questions focus attention)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from patient attending to discuss management of osteoporosis)
Feldstein 2006 Intervention 1 None identified
PCP
 • Knowledge (knowledge from guidelines)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from EMR)
 • Social influences (message from chairman acts as social influence)
 • Environmental context and resources (permanent record is a resource)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from second message)
Intervention 2
PCP
 • Knowledge (knowledge from guidelines)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from EMR)
 • Social influences (message from chairman acts as social influence)
 • Environmental context and resources (permanent record is a resource)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from second message)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (copy of patient letter sent to PCP focuses attention as PCP aware patient may visit for discussion)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from patient attending to discuss management options)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (decision processes: patient attending to discuss management options)
Patient
 • Knowledge (knowledge from educational materials)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from letter to patient to discuss management options with PCP)
 • Social influences (person sending letter to patient may act as a social influence if this is chairman as for PCPs)
Davis 2007 Patient Patient
 • Knowledge (knowledge from osteoporosis information)  • Memory, attention and decision processes (call at 3 months may inadvertently focus patient’s attention rather than simply act as an outcome measurement exercise)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (S: attention from letter encouraging patient to return to PCP)
 • Environmental context and resources (S: material resource of letter to take to PCP)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from telephone call at 3 months)
  PCP  
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (S: attention from letter)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (S: attention from patient attending for further investigation)
 • Social influences (S: social influence of orthopaedic surgeon)
Majumdar 2007 Patient Patient
 • Knowledge (knowledge from educational materials from Osteoporosis Canada)  • Knowledge (knowledge from educational materials from Osteoporosis Canada)
 • Knowledge (knowledge from one-on-one counselling from case manager)  • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention: patient asked to discuss materials with PCP)
 • Beliefs about consequences (beliefs about consequences of testing and treatment)  • Social influences (social influence of study personnel asking patient to discuss materials with the PCP)
 • Social influences (case manager as social influence for patient to agree to BMD scan and prescription) PCP
PCP  • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from patient attending to discuss the materials)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from patient attending to discuss the materials)
 • Environmental context and resources (S: BMD scan is a resource)
 • Environmental context and resources (T: prescription for bisphosphonates by study physician and dispensed by pharmacy is a resource)
Solomon 2007 Pharmacists None identified
 • Knowledge (knowledge of condition)
 • Knowledge (procedural knowledge of academic detailing)
 • Skills (skills—practicing physician encounters)
 • Beliefs about capabilities (beliefs about capabilities targeted using mock scripts)
 • Goals (reviewed goals of the intervention)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (memory/attention—follow-up teleconferences)
 • Environmental context and resources (provision of logistical support is a resource)
PCP
 • Knowledge (educational visit—knowledge of condition)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (decision processes: algorithm for diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis)
 • Environmental context and resources (double sided laminated card is a resource)
 • Environmental context and resources (tear sheet is a resource)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from tear sheet)
 • Environmental context and resources (patient list is a resource)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (patient list used during discussion to give examples of patients that should be considered for scan/treatment)
 • Social influences (pharmacists as social influence)
 • Environmental context and resources (S: BMD scan offered via automated call is a resource)
Patient
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (S: automated call encouraged members to schedule a BMD scan)
 • Knowledge (S: from phone call about osteoporosis and risk information)
 • Beliefs about consequences (S: of condition and testing)
 • Beliefs about capabilities (S: “only takes 5 min”)
 • Emotion (S: “painless”, “no need to take off clothes”)
 • Environmental context and resources (S: resource for scheduling BMD scan)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (S: second call offering patient opportunity to schedule BMD scan)
Cranney 2008 PCP None identified
 • Knowledge (from two-page educational tool)
 • Beliefs about consequences (of osteoporosis and benefits/risks of treatment)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from letter at 2 weeks post-fracture)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from letter at 2 months post-fracture)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (treatment algorithm aids decision processes)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from patient attending to discuss osteoporosis)
 • Social influences (endorsement from Osteoporosis Canada acts as social influence)
Patient
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from reminder letter at 2 weeks)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from reminder letter at 2 months)
 • Beliefs about consequences (future fracture risk)
 • Knowledge (from checklist of risks for fractures and 5-year absolute fracture risk)
 • Knowledge (from educational booklet about osteoporosis treatment options)
Majumdar 2008 Patient Patient
 • Knowledge (of condition from Osteoporosis Canada pamphlet)  • Knowledge (of condition from Osteoporosis Canada pamphlet)
 • Social influences (of Osteoporosis Canada)  • Social influences (of Osteoporosis Canada)
 • Beliefs about consequences (pamphlet highlighting fractures as harbinger of future events)  • Beliefs about consequences (fractures as harbinger of future events)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention: pamphlet emphasising importance of follow-up)  • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from pamphlet emphasising importance of follow-up)
 • Environmental context and resources (contact information is a resource)  • Environmental context and resources (contact information is a resource)
 • Knowledge (from printed materials with 3 key messages)  • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from second copy of pamphlet)
 • Knowledge (telephone call reiterated 3 key messages) PCP
 • Beliefs about consequences (3 key messages addressed beliefs about consequences of investigation/treatment)  • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from patient attending to discuss pamphlet)
 • Social influences (of nurse during phone call)
 • Beliefs about consequences (nurse allayed concerns)
 • Emotions (nurse allayed concerns)
 • Environmental context and resources (nurse as a resource—answered any questions)
PCP
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from patient attending to discuss management)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from patient-specific reminder)
 • Beliefs about consequences (3 key messages addressed beliefs about consequences of investigation/treatment)
 • Knowledge (from guidelines)
 • Social influence (of local opinion leaders)
 • Environmental context and resources (material resource of printed page with reminder and treatment guidelines forming part of patient’s record)
Miki 2008 Patient Patient
 • Knowledge (from 15-min education)  • Knowledge (from 15-min education)
 • Knowledge (education reiterated at follow-up clinic) PCP
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (T: telephone call/clinic visit to assess adherence may target memory to take medication)  • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from patient attending for osteoporosis evaluation)
 • Social influences (T: social influence of orthopaedic surgeon to adhere with treatment)
PCP
 • Environmental context and resources (S: evaluation for osteoporosis in hospital including BMD scan is a resource)
 • Environmental context and resources (T: follow-up in specialised orthopaedic osteoporosis clinic with commencement of treatment as appropriate is a resource)
 • Environmental context and resources (T: telephone call/clinic visit to monitor adherence and assess for complications is a resource)
Rozental 2008 PCP PCP
 • Environmental context and resources (S: BMD scan ordered by surgeon is a resource)  • Knowledge (from guidelines)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention from patient following up with PCP)  • Social influences (of orthopaedic surgeon’s letter)
Patient  • Social influences (of NOF guidelines)
 • Knowledge (of results of scan)
 • Memory, attention and decision processes (attention: patient encouraged to follow up with PCP)
 • Social influences (of encouragement from orthopaedic surgeon to discuss with PCP)
  1. Notes: PCP = primary care physician. A “T” in front of the code indicates that the code is related solely to osteoporosis treatment with anti-resorptive therapy, and an “S” solely to BMD scanning. The coding specified who the primary recipient of the intervention was, i.e. patient, PCP or pharmacist