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Table 2 Pre- and post-workshop comparisons of maternal and neonatal characteristics

From: The effect of professional-led guideline workshops on clinical practice for the management of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonates in Japan: a controlled before-and-after study

  Intervention NICUs (N= 2) Control NICUs (N= 88)
Variables Pre-WS (n = 146) Post-WS (n = 148) p value MD or OR (95% CI) Pre-WS (n = 3,322) Post-WS (n = 2,912) p value MD or OR (95% CI)
Maternal age (years) 31.2 ± 5.1 31.6 ± 5.4 0.56 0.43 (−0.78, 1.64) 31.2 ± 5.2 31.4 ± 5.3 0.37 0.12 (−0.15, 0.39)
Missing 1 0    166 47   
Primipara 121 (82.9) 116 (78.4) 0.32 0.75 (0.42, 1.34) 2,836 (85.4) 2,514 (86.3) 0.27 1.08 (0.94, 1.25)
Multiple pregnancy 42 (28.8) 40 (27.0) 0.73 0.92 (0.55,1.53) 834 (25.1) 681 (23.4) 0.11 0.91 (0.81, 1.02)
Maternal hypertension 22 (15.1) 25 (16.9) 0.67 1.15 (0.61, 2.14) 625/3,320 (18.8) 589/2,815 (20.9) 0.04 1.14 (1.01, 1.29)
Maternal diabetes 3 (2.1) 3 (2.0) 0.98 0.99 (0.20, 4.97) 44/3,320 (1.3) 52/2,749 (1.9) 0.08 1.44 (0.96, 2.15)
PROM 51 (34.9) 47 (31.8) 0.56 0.87 (0.53, 1.41) 896/3,322 (26.9) 866/2,888 (30.0) <0.01 1.16 (1.04, 1.29)
Chorioamnionitis 19/146 (13.0) 46/146 (31.5) <0.01 3.08 (1.70, 5.58) 494/3,271 (15.1) 467/2,652 (17.6) <0.01 1.20 (1.05, 1.38)
Antenatal steroids use 80/146 (54.8) 97/147 (66.0) 0.05 1.6 (0.998, 2.57) 1,446/3,320 (43.6) 1,474/2,827 (52.1) <0.01 1.41 (1.28, 1.56)
Gestational age (weeks) 28.2 ± 3.6 28.4 ± 3.2 0.67 0.19 (−0.58, 0.98) 28.4 ± 3.2 28.3 ± 3.2 0.82 −0.02 (−0.14, 0.18)
Birth weight (grams) 1,001.2 ± 323.9 991.7 ± 322.3 0.8 −9.53 (−83.6, 64.5) 1,027.2 ± 303.6 1,032.7 ± 301.7 0.47 5.53 (−9.53, 20.59)
Birth length (cm) 34.8 ± 4.1 34.4 ± 4.5 0.45 −0.38 (−1.39, 0.62) 35.3 ± 4.0 35.3 ± 4.2 0.85 0.02 (−0.19, 0.23)
Missing 4 1    232 158   
Head circumference (cm) 25.2 ± 2.7 25.4 ± 3.3 0.5 0.24 (−0.46, 0.95) 25.6 ± 2.8 25.6 ± 2.9 0.9 −0.01 (−0.16, 0.14)
Missing 8 1    296 188   
Gender (male) 80 (54.8) 72 (48.7) 0.29 0.78 (0.49, 1.24) 1,670/3,322 (50.3) 1,505/2,911 (51.7) 0.26 1.06 (0.96, 1.17)
Outborn 9 (6.2) 5 (3.4) 0.26 0.53 (0.17, 1.63) 245 (7.4) 225 (7.7) 0.6 1.05 (0.87, 1.27)
Vertex presentation 95/146 (65.1) 100/144 (69.4) 0.42 1.22 (0.75, 1.99) 2,258/3,309 (68.2) 1,859/2,658 (70.0) 0.15 1.08 (0.97, 1.21)
Cesarean section 110 (75.3) 105 (70.9) 0.39 0.80 (0.48, 1.34) 2,502 (75.3) 2,268 (77.9) 0.02 1.15 (1.03, 1.30)
Apgar score < 7 at 5 min 36/145 (24.8) 36/148 (24.3) 0.92 0.97 (0.57, 1.66) 801/3,219 (24.9) 682/2,863 (23.8) 0.33 0.94 (0.84, 1.06)
  1. Chi-square, Fisher’s exact test, or t-test was used as appropriate. p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. All the estimates were rounded. Binary outcome variables with missing data are indicated by the denominators showing the numbers of assessed infants. MD mean difference, OR odds ratio, CI confidence intervals. MD or OR estimates correspond as appropriate. Unless otherwise stated, values represent number of neonates with their percentages in the parentheses. NICUs neonatal intensive care units, PROM premature rupture of the membrane; Pre-WS: before the workshops; Post-WS: after the workshops.