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Table 2 Number and percentage of NCI-funded implementation science research grants by study characteristics, fiscal years 2000-2012

From: Implementation science in cancer prevention and control: a decade of grant funding by the National Cancer Institute and future directions

Characteristic Number of grants a Percent of grants a
Cancer control continuum   
 Prevention 33 49.3
 Screening 27 40.3
 Diagnosis 0 0.0
 Treatment 3 4.5
 Survivorship 4 6.0
 Cross-cutting 7 10.4
Types of cancer/risk factors   
 Colorectal cancer 20 29.9
 Breast cancer 12 17.9
 Cervical cancer 8 11.9
 Tobacco 26 38.8
 Physical activity 6 9.0
 Diet/nutrition 5 7.5
 Sun safety 5 7.5
 Public health genomics 4 6.0
 Obesity 3 4.5
Implementation science objectives   
 Dissemination 31 46.3
 Adoption 20 29.9
 Implementation 53 79.1
 Sustainability 26 38.8
Sustainability indicators   
 Capacity building 20 29.9
 Maintenance 25 37.3
 Cost analysis 15 22.4
Place on T2–T4 continuum   
 T2 (efficacy studies) 8 11.9
 T3 (comparative effectiveness) 61 91.0
 T4 (outcomes research) 8 11.9
Study settings   
 Community 18 26.9
 Faith based 3 4.5
 School based 6 9.0
 Clinical 35 52.2
 Workplace 10 14.9
 Home based 3 4.5
 Online 7 10.4
Collaborative processes   
 Yes 60 90
 No 7 10
Study design   
 Experimental, randomized control trial 39 58.2
 Experimental, nonrandomized trial 5 7.5
 Observational 21 31.3
 Modeling 2 3.0
Methods used   
 Qualitative 54 80.6
 Quantitative 59 88.1
 Comparative effectiveness 35 52.2
 Cost analysis 18 26.9
 Simulation models 2 3.0
 Network analysis 1 1.5
Frameworks/models   
 RE-AIM 23 34.3
 Diffusion of Innovation 26 38.8
 Organizational Change 7 10.4
 Systems/Network Theories 5 7.5
 Chronic Care Models 7 10.4
 Model of Diffusion in Service Organizations 3 4.5
How the model was used   
 Intervention design 48 71.6
 Formative research 22 32.8
 Measured variables 41 61.2
 Only stated 5 7.5
Replication costs considerations   
 Yes 33 49.3
 No 31 46.3
 NA 3 4.5
  1. aNumbers add up to more than 67 (100%) in some cases because a given grant may fit into more than one category.