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Table 1 Reasons for caesarean

From: Evaluation of quality improvement for cesarean sections programmes through mixed methods

Caesarean section for obstetric history

Fetal presentation/status

Anomaly labour

Illness or infection of the mother

Failure/refusal of intervention other than caesarean

Other indications

Caesarean-scarred uterus

Death in utero



Failed forceps/vacuum

Caesarean section on maternal request

Failed VBAC

Premature detachment of placenta

Cephalopelvic disproportion


Failed induction


Not eligible for VBAC

Fetal distress

Multiple fibroids


Refusal to release


Refusal elective VBAC

Multiple pregnancy

Ovarian cyst or fibroid previa

Genital herpes

Failure version


Denial of VBAC during operation

Post mature

Abnormal placentation (previa, marginal)

Indication for maternal illness


Other History

Prematurity (<37 weeks)

Prolapse/laterocidence cord uterine rupture



History of severe perineal tear

Breech presentation


Other acute maternal infections


History of perineal fistula


Arrest of dilatation


History of myomectomy

Intrauterine growth retardation

Failure of progression


History of fetal trauma

Congenital malformation


Premature rupture of membranes