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Table 2 Examples of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and suggested decisions about implementation strategies

From: Economic evaluation of implementation strategies in health care

Study Comparison of implementation strategies Intervention considered for implementation Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio Suggestions for implementation decision
Mason et al. 2005 [12] Specialist-nurse led clinics versus usual care Lipid control in patients with diabetes versus no lipid control $19,950 per quality-adjusted life-year Use of specialist-nurse led clinics for implementing lipid control is cost-effective
Scheeres et al. 2008 [13] Multifaceted strategy, including health professional and patient education and instruction, versus usual care Cognitive behavior therapy of chronic fatigue syndrome versus regular counseling €5,320 per recovered patient Use of multifaceted strategy for implementing cognitive behavior therapy is cost-effective
Walker et al. 2009 [14] Financial incentives to primary care practices versus usual care Use of ACE inhibitor and other quality indicators versus conventional care £5,623 per quality-adjusted life-year Use of financial incentives for implementing ACE inhibitor and other quality indicators is cost-effective
Hoomans et al. 2009 [15] Audit and feedback to primary care physicians versus usual care Intensive control of blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes versus conventional control €25,640 per quality-adjusted life-year Use of audit and feedback for implementing intensified control of blood glucose is cost-effective
Choudhry et al. 2011 [16] No co-payments for patients versus co-payments Preventive medication after myocardial infarction versus no preventive medication $54 per nonfatal vascular event or vascularization averted (cost-saving) Use of no co-payments for implementing preventive medication is cost-effective
Mortimer et al. 2013 [17] Multifaceted strategy targeting primary care physicians, including interactive workshops, versus guideline dissemination alone Evidence-based care for acute low back pain versus convention −AU$108 per x-ray referral avoided (cost-saving) Use of multifaceted strategy for implementing evidence-based care is cost-effective
Gillespie et al. 2014 [18] Structured patient education with group follow-up versus individual follow-up Self-management in type 1 diabetes versus conventional care €19,300 per quality-adjusted life year (cost-saving) Use of structured patient education with group for implementing self-management is not cost-effective