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Table 6 Implications of different levels of uncertainty for the role of process, relationships, and resources in improvement efforts

From: Manifestations and implications of uncertainty for improving healthcare systems: an analysis of observational and interventional studies grounded in complexity science

Uncertainty Process Relationships Resources
Low level More likely to be effective. Consider quality/process improvement approaches that are generally applicable. Less likely to be more effective than process-based interventions. Consider only as additive/enhancing for process-based interventions. Consider in terms of supporting processes, e.g., deploying system-wide pathways or standardized protocols through an electronic health record.
High level Less likely to be effective, or sufficient to enable necessary change. More likely to be required for successful change. Consider approaches such as huddles, facilitation, or collaboratives. Consider in terms of need for human or other resources required to enable sensemaking, e.g., care coordinators integrated with other providers for high-utilizer patients.