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Table 2 Studies examining the association between relationships and outcomes and their results

From: Manifestations and implications of uncertainty for improving healthcare systems: an analysis of observational and interventional studies grounded in complexity science

Observational studies
Study (PI) Setting Approach
Learning and Relationships in VA Primary Care Clinics (VA L&R, Pugh) [28] 19 Veteran Affairs primary care clinics in South Texas N/A
Using Complexity Science to Understand Inpatient Microsystems (CS-IM, Leykum) [31],[32] 11 physician teams in two teaching hospitals in San Antonio N/A
Interventional studies
Study to Enhance Prevention by Understanding Practice (STEP-UP, Stange) [25-27] Randomized trial 77 primary care practices in Ohio Facilitation to enable process improvement to improved delivery of preventive services
Using Learning Teams for Reflective Adaptation study (ULTRA, Crabtree) [4] 25 primary care practices Facilitated reflective adaptive process to improve team communication and adherence to clinical guidelines
Enhancing Practice, Improving Care (EPIC, Nutting and Crabtree) [6] 40 primary care practices Three-arm study: Practice facilitation and CQI approaches to improve team relationships and diabetes care versus usual care group
ABC study (Parchman) [29] 40 primary care clinics in South Texas One-year practice facilitation to improve relationships and diabetes outcomes
Supporting Colorectal Cancer Outcomes through Participatory Enhancements (SCOPE, Nutting and Crabtree) [5] 23 primary care practices in New Jersey Six-month practice facilitation/learning collaboratives to improve screening rates
CONNECT (Anderson) [30] Eight community and VA nursing homes (four interventions, four controls) Improve information sharing across disciplines coupled with standard falls prevention intervention