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Table 2 Direct comparisons ( N =8 reviews)

From: Are multifaceted interventions more effective than single-component interventions in changing health-care professionals' behaviours? An overview of systematic reviews

First author (year) and title Review characteristics Review findingsa Conclusionb
Beach 2006 [20] N: 27 studies 3/4 studies reported multifaceted interventions to be more effective than a single intervention Generally effective (75%)
Improving Health Care Quality for Racial/Ethnic Minorities: A Systematic Review of the Best Evidence Regarding Provider and Organization Interventions Study designs: randomized controlled trials, clinical trials • 1/1 study favoured multifaceted vs. reminders
Populations: physicians, nurses, other • 1/1 study favoured multifaceted vs. distribution of educational materials
Settings: primary care practices, outpatient clinics, communities, other • 1/2 studies favoured multifaceted vs. educational meetings
AMSTAR (quality) score: 5
Hulscher (2001) [21] N: 55 studies 7/8 comparisons (across N = 6 studies) state multifaceted interventions are more effective than single interventions Generally effective (88%)
Interventions to Implement Prevention in Primary Care Study designs: randomized controlled trials, controlled before-after • 5/6 comparisons favoured multifaceted vs. group education (5 studies)
Populations: physicians, nurses, other • 2/2 comparisons favoured multifaceted vs. reminders (2 studies)
Settings: primary care practices, outpatient clinics, medical centres  
AMSTAR (quality) score: 5
Jamtvedt (2006) [22] N: 118 studies 6/19 studies state multifaceted interventions are more effective than single interventions (audit and feedback alone). Generally ineffective (32%)
Audit and Feedback: Effects on Professional Practice and Health Care Outcomes Study designs: randomized controlled trials  
Population: any kind of health-care professional
Setting: any kind of organization
AMSTAR (quality) score: 8
Legare (2012) [27] N: 21 2/3 studies state multifaceted interventions are more effective than single interventions Mixed effects (67%)
Patients' Perceptions of Sharing in Decisions: A Systematic Review of Interventions to Enhance Shared Decision Making in Routine Clinical Practice Study designs: randomized controlled trials, cluster randomized controlled trials • 2/2 studies favoured multifaceted vs. patient mediated
Populations: physicians • 0/1 study favoured multifaceted vs. educational meeting
Settings: primary care practices, outpatient clinics, hospitals, pharmacies, communities  
AMSTAR (quality) score: 7
Marinopoulos (2007) [23] N: 136 studies 6/8 studies state multifaceted interventions (use of multiple media) are more effective than single interventions Generally effective (75%)
Effectiveness of Continuing Medical Education Study designs: randomized controlled trials, before-after, observational • 3/5 studies favoured multifaceted over distribution of educational materials
Populations: physicians, pharmacists, nurses, other • 2/2 studies favoured multifaceted over educational meetings
Settings: primary care practices, hospitals, long-term care facilities • 1/1 study favoured multifaceted over audit and feedback
AMSTAR (quality) score: 7
O'Brien (2007) [24] N: 69 studies 12/12 studies state multifaceted interventions are more effective than single interventions Generally effective (100%)
Educational Outreach Visits: Effects on Professional Practice and Health Care Outcomes Study designs: randomized controlled trials • 3/3 studies favoured multifaceted vs. audit and feedback
Populations: any kind of health-care professional • 7/7 studies favoured multifaceted vs. distribution of educational materials
Settings: primary care practices, outpatient clinics, nursing homes, hospitals, pharmacies, communities • 1/1 study favoured multifaceted vs. educational meetings
• 1/1 study favoured multifaceted vs. reminders
AMSTAR (quality) score: 8
Weinmann (2007) [25] N: 18 studies (in 17 papers) 2/5 studies state multifaceted interventions are more effective than single interventions (distribution of educational materials) Mixed effects (40%)
Effects of Implementation of Psychiatric Guidelines on Provider Performance and Patient Outcome: Systematic Review Study designs: randomized controlled trials, controlled trials, before-after
Populations: physicians, nurses, pharmacists, mental health clinicians, medical assistants
Settings: primary care practices, hospitals, communities
AMSTAR (quality) score: 5
Wensing (1994) [6] N: 75 studies 1/3 studies state multifaceted interventions more effective than single interventions Mixed effects (33%)
Single and Combined Strategies for Implementing Changes in Primary Care: A Literature Review Study designs: randomized controlled trials, controlled trials, before-after, cohort • 0/1 study favoured multifaceted over distribution of educational materials
Populations: physicians • 0/1 study favoured multifaceted over reminders
Settings: primary care practices • 1/1 study favoured multifaceted over audit and feedback
AMSTAR (quality) score: 4
  1. aFindings are reported by the number of studies where available. In a small number of cases, reviews reported findings by the number of comparisons.
  2. bEffectiveness of multifaceted compared to single-component interventions.