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Table 1 Overview of instrumentation issues and recommendations

From: Instrumentation issues in implementation science

Issue Recommendation
1. Use of frameworks, theories, and models • Use theoretical model and include those construct definitions in manuscripts
• Work towards consensus language as a field
• Consider use of the CFIR Wiki for construct definitions
2. Need to establish instrument psychometric properties • Identify, perform, and report results of most appropriate reliability assessments when possible
• Identify, perform, and report results of most appropriate validity assessments when possible
• Attempt to establish psychometric properties while simultaneously investigating factors involved in the implementation process e.g., [52]
3. The use of `home-grown’ and adapted instruments • Utilize SIRC IRP and NCI GEM projects to identify existing instruments for constructs under evaluation
• Utilize proper test development procedures [27],[33],[34]
• Report adaptations (changes in length, language, structure) and updated psychometrics to assess effect of adaptations
4. Choosing the most appropriate evaluation method and approach • Consider utilizing mixed-methods approaches
• When appropriate, consider utilizing multi-informant, direct observation, and administrative data in addition to or instead of self-report
5. Practicality • Keep instrument costs as low as possible
• Keep item numbers low (perhaps 10 or fewer)
• Provide the instrument items in the published manuscript
• Provide the instrument to the NCI GEM project or SIRC IRP
• Make the language accessible
6. Need for decision-making tools • Utilize the SIRC IRP and NCI GEM projects to identify instruments
• Report on any and all results of psychometric analyses
  1. Note. CFIR = Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research [15]; SIRC IRP = Seattle Implementation Research Collaborative Instrument Review Project; NCI GEM = National Cancer Institute Grid-Enabled Measures Project.