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Table 3 Examples of talk turns that were correctly or incorrectly classified by the labeled topic model

From: Scaling up the evaluation of psychotherapy: evaluating motivational interviewing fidelity via statistical text classification

Code Model correctly classified talk turn Rater codes Model incorrectly classified talk turn Rater codes
QUC Yeah does that surprise you. QUC How does that sound. QUO
  Does that sound about right. QUC So you are you do have housing now. REC, RES
  Yeah does that surprise you or does that seem like it’s. QUC Um medical risk psychological risks social risks and it’s a scale from one to ten and you were in a nine. GI
  So well did you have any other questions for me or. QUC So where do you think you go from here then at this point. QUO
QUO So what do you make of that. QUO Were you doing this by yourself or were you. QUC
  What do you mean by that. QUO Do you think you’ve hit rock bottom now. QUC
  What do you mean by absurd. QUO Are you thinking of mike’s hard. QUC
  What do you mean by that what. QUO In terms of your actual blood alcohol level. QUC
RES Okay and you said that you used to drink a little bit more last year it sounds like. RES Okay so by cutting down it sounds like you were thinking use occasionally but not use as much. REC
  Yeah you mentioned that and you felt like that kinda. RES You’re talking about you and your experience. GI, REC
  You mentioned that maybe right here with legally intoxicated I know you mentioned earlier that you always have safe transportation so that would be a more safe area for you. GI, RES Well it sounds like you use it in a way that’s pretty controlled. REC
  It sounds like it it sounds like you’re doing it it sounds like you have um you say you feel better right is that physically and emotionally. AF, QUC, REC, RES So when you talked about going to treatment twelve times you were talking about a a or you were talking about in-patient treatment ah. QUC
REC Mm-hmm so you’re two birds of a feather it sounds like. REC And yet it sounds like you do have depression at times you. RES
  Yeah it sounds like you’ve turned it around. REC Okay so it sounds like drinking is kind of like a. RES
  So it really truly to me it sounds like you’ve really been thinking about this pretty hard. REC And it seems like you’re not having any withdrawals at this point but you’ve physically or psychologically dependent upon alcohol. GI, QUC, RES
  Well it sounds like that’s a big deterrent for you. REC That’s hard it sounds like but you know what but. GI, RES, SU
+ I put alcohol by myself I can do anything. + You know because I know I’m a good person. FN
  Doing anything with that coke that scares me that straight up scares me. + But I really don’t know that I had a choice. -
  Because it’s not good for you and it’s bad and I don’t like it it makes me feel guilty and. + Yeah but I I just can’t leave the cocaine alone I can’t stay away from it. -
  Well I shouldn’t be doing it and it’s illegal it’s it’s bad for you I know it's bad and I do it because when I drink too much sometimes I do that because it’s so much it’s all around me not all around me but it’s easy accessible to get and when I’m not drinking I would never touch it. +, - Just like I said my own excitement. -
- Yeah I don’t feel like I drink anything crazy or anything besides strictly beer I’m pretty cheap too so. +, - I usually do mix when I drink actually. FN
  Yes I do smoke weed and I would smoke weed every day if I had it I mean I used to when I was younger I used to but now I only smoke it when I’m around certain people and I only see them maybe once a week so to me that’s not severe or heavy. - Feel stressed I take a lot of naps when I get stressed out and watch movies stuff like that back home I take baths but I can’t really do that here so. FN
  Yes if I have to only if I have to I change but if I don’t have to I can survive working there working here I’m not gonna quit man. +, - It kind of explains a lot because I take naps just about every day and like I don’t usually dream at night but when I take naps I have some pretty intense dreams. +
  Like I said I mean it’s been a while since I really had a problem. - Right absolutely it means not it’s not a it’s I’m probably underestimating what I feel I’m probably lowballing how horrible I feel honestly. FN
  1. QUC, Therapist closed question; QUO, Therapist open question; REC, Therapist complex reflection; RES, Therapist simple reflection; AF, Therapist affirmation; GI, Therapist giving information; SU, Therapist support; FN, Client follow/neutral; + , Client change talk; -, Client sustain talk.