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Table 2 Summary of meta-analyses of culturally adapted mental health treatments

From: A two-way street: bridging implementation science and cultural adaptations of mental health treatments

Study Number of studies Type of interventions included Type of study populations Effect sizesa Significant moderators
   Prevention Treatment Children/Youth Adult Culturally adapted vs. heterogeneous controlsb Culturally adapted vs. un-adapted psychotherapyc  
       D 95% CI d 95% CI  
Benish et al.[18] 59   X X X 0.41* 0.38, 0.48 0.32* 0.21, 0.43 • Adaptation to client’s explanatory models
0.33** 0.13, 0.29 0.21** 0.13, 0.26
Huey et al.[19] 25   X X   0.44** 0.32, 0.56    • Type of comparison group with largest effect sizes for no treatment control and placebo versus treatment as usual
Griner et al.[20] 76 X X X X 0.45d, ** 0.36, 0.53    • Age: Older participants had higher effect sizes than younger participants
0.40e, ** 0.30, 0.49 • Hispanic ethnicity: Higher percentage of Hispanic participants had higher effect sizes than studies with lower percentage of Hispanic participants
• Racially homogenous samples: Studies with racially homogenous samples had higher effect sizes than studies with racially heterogeneous samples
• Language: Studies that reported language match had higher effect sizes than studies that did not report language match
• Acculturation: Adaptation seem to benefit most low acculturated Hispanics compared to Hispanics with moderate levels of acculturation
Smith et al.[21] 65   X X X 0.46** 0.36, 0.56a    • Treatment delivered to specific cultural groups were more effective than those delivered to mixed racial/ethnic groups
  • Adapting therapeutic goals to match client’s goals
  • Using metaphors/symbols in therapy to match client’s cultural world views
  1. Note: aAll effect sizes reported in the studies reviewed were computed so that positive values indicate greater benefit for culturally adapted treatment over their comparison group; bIn these comparisons, culturally adapted treatments are compared to heterogeneous controls conditions that include other un-adapted treatment, usual care, waitlist conditions, and attention control; cIn these comparisons, specific culturally adapted psychotherapies are compared to the same un-adapted psychotherapy; deffect sizes for all studies included in this meta-analysis; eeffect size for studies that only compared culturally adapted interventions to an ‘alternative intervention.’ *Primary measures; **All measures.