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Table 2 History of infection control efforts relevant to central venous catheters

From: Explaining Matching Michigan: an ethnographic study of a patient safety program

2001 Mandatory reporting to the Health Protection Agency (HPA) of MRSA bacteraemia.
2003 Report of the Chief Medical Officer: Winning ways: guidance to reduce healthcare associated infection in England.
2004 Mandatory reporting of Clostridium difficile infection (HPA website) 2004 Hospital in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance of Nosocomial Infections in ICUs protocol.
2005 DoH Saving Lives program—NHS High Impact Interventions (NHS-HII), modelled on Institute for Healthcare Improvement bundles.
2006 Health Act 2006: Department of Health Code of Practice gives new powers of inspection to the Healthcare Commission. Superseded by the Health & Social Care Act 2008
2008 2008 Health and Social Care Act 2008: required registration with the Care Quality Commission: duty to protect patients against HCAIs. New code of practice.
2008 Patient Safety First sponsored by National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA), NHS HII, and Health Foundation, includes interventions to reduce CVC-BSIs
2009 Some NHS trusts participated in CQUIN (Commissioning for Quality and Innovation) schemes that made a percentage of their incomes dependent on demonstrating compliance
2011 Mandatory reporting of MRSA and Escherichia coli bacteraemia.