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Table 1 Theory names, theory authors, category, and degree of utilization

From: A systematic review of the use of theory in randomized controlled trials of audit and feedback

Category Theory name Number of times used* Number of times used as part of intervention design**
Theory author(s) and year
Education
Knowles, 1984[17], 1990[18] Adult Learning Theory 2 1
Coles & Holm, 1993[19] Theory of Medical Education 1 1
Diffusion
Rogers, 1983(3)[20], 1995(2)[15] Diffusion of Innovations 5 3
Penland, 1997[21] Technology Diffusion Theory 1 0
Organization
Greenhalgh, Robert, Macfarlane, Bate, & Kyriakidou, 2004[22] Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations 1 0
Lawler, 1976[23] Lawler’s Organization Theory 1 1
Levitt, 1965[24] Organization Development Theory 1 1
Kirkpatrick, 1967[25] Kirkpatrick’s Hierarchy of Levels of Evaluation 1 0
Psychology
Bandura, 1969[26], 1986(2)[16], 1997[27] Social Cognitive Theory 4 4
Prochaska & DiClemente, 1982[28], 1986[29], 1992[30] Transtheoretical Model 3 1
Fishbein, 1979[31], Fishbein & Ajzen, 1968[32] Theory of Reasoned Action 2 1
Azjen, 1991b Theory of Planned Behavior 1 1
Conner & Norman, 1996[33] Social Cognitive Models 1 0
Green & Kreeuter, 1991[34] Precede/Proceed Planning Model 1 1
Reason, 2000[35] Human Error Theory 1 1
Ullman & Krasner, 1975[36] Behavioral Psychology Theory 1 1
Perry, Baranowski, & Parcel, 1990[37] Social Learning Theory 1 1
Social cognitive model: undefineda Social Cognitive Models 1 0
  1. a Study indicated only that ‘social cognitive models’ were used but did not specify a reference.
  2. b Study used The Theory of Planned Behavior but did not provide a reference for the theory.
  3. *These 29 uses of theory were located in 20 papers (14% of the 140 reviewed).
  4. **These 18 uses of theory for intervention design were located in 13 papers (9% of the 140 reviewed).