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Table 2 Selected behaviour change theories matching barriers in performing HH

From: Explaining the effects of two different strategies for promoting hand hygiene in hospital nurses: a process evaluation alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial

Theory Focus Key elements
Social learning theory [26] Behaviour is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning. – Demonstration, role modelling.
– Encompasses attention, memory, and motivation.
Social influence theory [27] Social norm in a network determines what correct behaviour is. – Norm and target setting.
– Commitment team members.
– Use of opinion leaders.
– Performance feedback.
– Team members address each other in case of undesirable behaviour.
Theory on team effectiveness [28, 29] Orientation on team climate and willingness to change – Team Vision: clarity, perceived value, and attainability.
– Participation Safety: decision-making, information sharing, interaction and safety.
– Support for Innovation: articulated and enhanced support.
– Task Orientation: commitment to excellence, appraisal and task orientation.
Theories of leadership [30] Leading, coaching and managing a team – Active commitment/participation in performance improvement initiatives.
– Setting norms and targets/direction/expectations.
– Encouragement and support/motivate staff.
– Monitoring performance and feedback.