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Table 1 The main domains in the 12 included checklists compared with the TICD checklist

From: A checklist for identifying determinants of practice: A systematic review and synthesis of frameworks and taxonomies of factors that prevent or enable improvements in healthcare professional practice

Included checklists (first author, year of publication, reference) The seven domains of factors in the TICD checklist
  Guideline factors Individual health professional factors Patient factors Professional interactions Incentives and resources Capacity for organisational change Social, political and legal factors
Cabana 1999 [4] Behaviour - guideline factors e.g. guideline characteristics and presence of conflicting guidelines Knowledge e.g. familiarity, awareness Attitudes e.g. agreement with the specific guideline and guidelines in general, outcome expectancy, self-efficacy, motivation Behaviour e.g. external barriers, guideline factors, environmental factors Behaviour - external barriers e.g. patient factors Not included Behaviour - environmental factors, lack of resources or reimbursement Behaviour - environmental factors organisational constraints Not included
Cochrane 2007 [14] Clinical practice guidelines/evidence barriers e.g. utility, evidence, access, structure, applicability Cognitive/ behavioural barriers e.g. knowledge, awareness, skill/ expertise Health care professional barriers Patient barriers e.g. patient adherence Health care professional barriers – e.g. peer influence Support/resources barriers e.g. time, cost and funding issues, resources System/process barriers e.g. organisational, system, workload/ overload Health care professional barriers e.g. legal issues
Damschroder 2009 [15] Intervention characteristics e.g. source, evidence strength and quality, relative advantage, adaptability, triability, complexity, cost Characteristics of individuals e.g. knowledge and beliefs about the intervention, self-efficacy, individual stage of change, individual identification with organisation “Outer setting” e.g. patient needs “Inner setting” e.g. network and communications, culture “Inner setting” e.g. available resources, incentives, access to knowledge and information “Outer setting” e.g. incentives “Inner setting” e.g. learning climate, readiness for implementations, organisational incentives. “Outer setting” e.g. external policies “Process” Not included
Greenhalgh 2004 [17] Innovation - inherent attributes (e.g. relative advantage, compatibility, low complexity, trialability, observability), operational attributes (task relevance and usefulness, feasibility, nature of knowledge needed) Adopters and adoption - characteristics and needs, meaning of the innovation, nature of the adoption decision, concerns Not included Communication and influence - nature of networks, main agents of social influence Inner context organisation’s readiness (dedicated time/resources, broad based support) Inner context - structural features of the organisation, organisation’s absorptive capacity for new knowledge, receptive context, organisation’s readiness Outer context Implementation and sustainability External agencies Not included
Gurses 2010 [16] Guideline characteristics e.g. relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability, strength of evidence Clinician characteristics e.g. awareness, familiarity, agreement, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, motivation, normative beliefs, subjective norms Not included System characteristics e.g. organisational characteristics (e.g. culture, teamwork, communication) Implementation characteristics e.g. funding availability, monitoring and feedback mechanisms Implementation characteristics e.g. tension for change, mandate/preparation-planning, leader and middle manager involvement and support, getting ideas from outside the organisation Not included
Kitson 2008 [18] Evidence – research and clinical experience Not directly included Evidence –patient experience Context - context, culture, Context – human/financial /technological/ equipment – resources appropriately allocated Context - context, leadership, evaluation Facilitation - purpose, role, skills and attributes Not included
Mäkelä 1999 [5] Not included Professionals: KnowledgeSkillsAttitudes Environment Social factors support for or discourage-ment of change by others (e.g. patients) Environment Social factors - support for or discouragement of change by others (e.g. colleagues at practice site, other members of professional team) Economic factors - availability/lack of resources Organisational factors – e.g. availability of guidelines at workplace, practicality within existing practice setting or routines, local infrastructures or rules) Not included
Michie 2005 [7] Nature of the behaviours Knowledge Skills Social/professional role and identity (self-standards) Beliefs about capabilities (self-efficacy) Beliefs about consequences (anticipated outcomes/attitude) Motivation and goals (intention) Memory, attention and decision processes Emotion Behavioural regulation Not included Social influences (norms) Environmental context and resources (environmental constraints) Environmental context and resources (environmental constraints) Not included
Rainbird 2006 [8] The innovation itself - feasibility, credibility, accessibility, attractiveness Individual professional - awareness, knowledge, attitude, motivation to change, behavioural routines Patient - knowledge skills, attitude, compliance Social context - opinion of colleagues, culture of the network, collaboration Organisational context – capacities, resources Social context – leadership Organisational context – care processes, staff, structures Economic and political context - financial arrangements, regulations, policies
Saillour-Glenisson 2003 [20] Clinical practice guideline characteristics - form, topic, compatibility, trialability, scientific basis, observability, adaptability, legal implications Physician characteristics - knowledge about the CPG, attitude and agreement to CPG, psychological and socio-demographic and economic characteristics, job satisfaction, training Human environment e.g. patient influence, attitude, physician - patient interaction Human environment e.g. peer influence Oganizational environment – financial context (resources) Organisational environment (internal and external environment) Organisational environment – External environment
SURE Collaboration 2011 [19]   Providers of care - knowledge and skills, attitudes regarding programme acceptability, appropriateness and credibility, motivation to change or adopt new behaviour Recipients of care – knowledge, skills and attitudes, motivation to change or adopt new behaviour Other stakeholders knowledge, skills, attitudes, motivation to change or adopt new behaviour Health system constraints – e.g. accessibility of care, financial resources, human resources, incentives, Other stakeholders Knowledge, skills, attitudes, motivation to change or adopt new behavior Health system constraints e.g. internal and external communication, management or leadership, information systems, patient flow processes, bureaucracy, relationship with norms and standards Social and political constraints - ideology, short-term thinking, contracts, legislation or regulations, influential people, political stability
Wensing [3] Not included Individual level: Cognitive factors Motivational factors Behavioural factors - Not included Professional interaction: Interaction in professional teams Structure of professional networks Factors related to structures: Financial incentives Regulations-purchaser provider contract relationships Organisational level: Organisational structures Organisational processes Organisational resources Factors related to structures: Societal factors Factors related to structures: Regulations