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Table 1 Interrelationships among various chronic diseases and modifiable risk factors, United States

From: Promoting state health department evidence-based cancer and chronic disease prevention: a multi-phase dissemination study with a cluster randomized trial component

  Cardiovascular disease Cancer Chronic lung disease Diabetes Cirrhosis Musculoskeletal diseases Neurologic disorders
Tobacco use + + +    + +
Alcohol use + +    + + +
High cholesterol +       
High blood pressure +       +
Diet + +   +   + ?
Physical inactivity + +   +   + +
Obesity + +   +   + +
Stress + ?      
Environmental tobacco smoke + + +     ?
Occupation + + +   ? + ?
Pollution + + +     +
Low socioeconomic status + + + + + +  
  1. Reprinted with permission from Remington RL, Brownson RC, Wegner MV, eds. Chronic Disease Epidemiology and Control, Third Edition. 2010: American Public Health Association, Washington, DC[19].